Lucian (Lukianos)( Greek speaker and writer)
Comments for Lucian (Lukianos)
Biography Lucian (Lukianos)
Lucian; Lukianos, from Kommageny over the Euphrates, ca. 120 OK. 190 years. n. e., Greek orator and writer. From poor Syrian family. First mastered the craft of the sculptor, which was soon abandoned, to study rhetoric and philosophy. Through hard work, it is perfectly learned the Greek language and became one of the most prominent representatives of the so-called second sophistry (cm. Sophists 2.) Like other sophists, he traveled extensively in Asia Minor, Greece, Italy and Gaul, saying exemplary speech in all major centers in what was then the rhetoric, such as Athens, Rome, Antioch, Ephesus, Smyrna. Longest of all, he stayed in Massilia. He earned loud fame and fortune. Ok. 160 g. briefly returned to the East, then settled in Athens, where away from the rhetoric and began to study philosophy, with more than its entire interest to Cynicism. Contradictory views of various philosophical schools led L. to the rejection of all dogmatism, skeptical restraint and criticism. The last years of life L. held in Egypt, where he was Chief of Staff at the Roman governors, giving him the Emperor Commodus. Under the name L. retain about 80 works of prose, two tragic parodies and 53 epigrams (not all original).
The earliest are the rhetorical works on mythological and historical subjects, sometimes soaked in the form of fictitious judicial speeches: Falarid (Phalaris) - ill-Sicilian tyrant VI in. BC. e., . who donated Apollo bronze bull, . gun penalty; Double disinherited (Apokeryttomenos) - fictitious speech in defense of her son, . which threatened undeserved disinheritance; tyrannicide (Tyrannoktonos) - about daredevil, . dreamed of fame, . instead of the tyrant who killed his son and demanded the reward,
. During this period, L. wrote witty paradoxical ENCOM (praise on trivial grounds): Praise the fly (Myias enkomion), the Court of vowels (Dike phoneenton). The nature of rhetorical exercises were also coming to an exemplary speeches, the so-called prolalii (Prolaliai). In the realm of literary criticism include: The teacher of rhetoric (Rhetoron didaskolos) - ironic, . full of sarcasm instruction, . with the help of bad faith and ignorance can be influential conductor, how to write history (Pos dei historian syngraphein) - A funny criticism of modern,
. historians. For L. ideal of the historian might be someone who connects with the charm of Herodotus, Thucydides' objectivity. A linguistic issues. engaged in the works Psevdosofist and Leksifan.
Autobiographical work - it's a dream (Peri tu enypniu), Life Demonaksa (Demonaktos bios). L. mocking the new beliefs and religious disputes, . is reflected in two works: Alexander, . or the false prophet (Aleksandros e Pseudomantis) and the death of Peregrine (Peri tu Peregrinu teleutes) - on the fanatics, . emerging from a self-immolation (which he h,
. witnessed). The group's novels belong to the True Story (Alethes historia) - invented adventurous story about the adventures of young travelers at sea, . parody of the fantasy adventure novels, . Lucius, . or donkey (Lukios e onos), . better known in the expanded Latin version of Apuleius,
. The most mature and most characteristic product of L. are dialogues, especially satire, much of which was established in Athens. The addiction to this form of L. delivered from the practice of professional rhetoricians, who taught speeches pros and cons of fake trials. Over 35 works of L. have the form of dialogue, or close to it. The art of constructing a dialogue L. learned from Plato, from him, he sometimes adopts and names, for example, Pir (Symposion) - a humorous imitation of the Feast of Plato and Xenophon, and along with that caustic satire of speculative philosophy and the philosophers themselves. Germotim (Hermotimos) - Socratic. Much L. taken from the Cynic diatribe (Bion with Borisphen), and the echoes of Attic comedy, we find in the works Menippus, Ikaromenipp, Timon, Rybak (Halieus), as well as permeated Cynic philosophy Conversations dead (Nekrikoi dialogoi).
Notable dialogues L. belong: Discussions of the gods (Theon dialogoi), Conversations sea gods (Enalioi dialogoi) and clearly demonstrate the link with a new comedy talk heteras (Hetairikoi dialogoi). Great influence on L. has Menippus of Gadar, often L. displays his interlocutor in his dialogue, and of his satires draws some of the motifs, for example, the motif of the descent into Hades, Zeus. Topography dialogues L. very diverse, the action takes place on the streets, banquet hall, in the sky, underground, in the air and water. Gallery interlocutors is very rich, there are gods, people, animals, the embodiment of abstract concepts, dead, alive, the images of historical, fictional, allegorical. L. distinguished by an extraordinary flight of fancy and vivacity of imagination. Incredibly well-read, he freely uses the rich tradition of Greek literature, strikes an inexhaustible wealth of stories, jokes, sharp and pointed observations. He entertains the reader with amusing scenes, . exposing the charlatans, . masterfully creates satirical figures, . criticizes contemporary life and people, . condemns bean counter, . class inequalities, . mocking philosophers, . religious prejudices, . anthropomorphic gods,
. An exquisite stylist, he wrote on the Attic dialect and the surprising perfect language. L. is one of the most prominent and most widely read writers willing era of the Empire. Echoes of familiarity with L. we see the Greek novelist Heliodorus, Alkifrona, in the epigrams of Palladio. He cites Lactantius, appreciate Erasmus and other humanists. In XV. L. introduced into the school reading.