Mark Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)( Roman emperor and the Greek philosopher)
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Biography Mark Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)
Marcus Aurelius; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 121-180 gg. n. e., Roman emperor and the Greek philosopher. Occurred from wealthy kind Anniev, has long been settled in Spain. Born in Rome, first name was Mark Annius Catullus North. After the death of his father (130 g.) was adopted by his grandfather, Mark Anniem Verom. He studied art, philosophy, Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, and then studied under the guidance of the pediment and Geroda Attica. Under the influence of lectures and works stoic Epictetus Quintus Junius Rustic abandoned the rhetoric and devoted himself entirely to the study of Stoic philosophy (146 g.). By order of the Emperor Hadrian was with Lucius Verom adoptable Antonin Pius (138 g.), and from that time he was called Mark Aelius Aurelius Wehr. In 139 g. received the title of Caesar, in 145 g. married Faustina the Younger, daughter of Antoninus Pius, after whose death took power (161), and named co-regent Vera Lucia.
During his reign MA. conducted numerous defensive war. In the 167-175 and 178-180 gg. personally led the fight against Germanic tribes Marcomanni and quads, as well as Sarmatian Yazigi. Probably intended to create two new privintsii - Marcomanni and Sarmatians, wanting to expand the borders of the empire to the Carpathians. These plans initially prevented revolt Avidya Cassius in the East (175), and then the sudden death of MA. to Vindobona (sovr. Vienna). As Emperor MA. cared about the development of science and philosophy - he founded in Athens 4 Department of Philosophy (for academics, peripatetics, the Stoics and Epicureans). MA. hostile to Christians. In the years of his rule occur bloody persecution (death apologist Justin in Rome ca. 167 g. and Polycarp of Smyrna in 168 g.), efforts in 177 g. (mainly in Lyon in Gaul and VIENNA). - In the last years of life MA. recorded in Greek, his thoughts and reasoning, but he had no intention to publish. Notes that MA. not give any names, were issued only after the death of the emperor, apparently under the title Ta eis heauton (for himself, in Russian literature was taken the name Reflections).
In the book. I Reflection MA. briefly describes the parents, relatives and teachers and tells them what he is obliged. Books II-XII are a disparate collection of aphorisms and free discourse, randomly interconnected. They cover a range of issues: the universe, God, the universe, man, the human soul, man, others. It is impossible to establish the exact chronology of the creation of individual books. Another controversy is the question, whether created the first book before the rest. Mistake to believe that MA. tried to create a new kind of literature and find their own, entirely new means of expression. Prove that thoughts are not original, neither in terms of content (MA. is followed Posidonius, Seneca and especially for Epictetus), nor in terms of form. Reflections MA. written in simple conversational language of the era. They are only interested the Emperor Julian the Apostate, who took the MA. for sample. After the fall of the pagan emperor's interest in the product almost disappeared, which once again received loud fame only in the XVII and XVIII centuries. in the Enlightenment (mostly in Britain, France and Germany). Often spoken to people who had rejected Christianity in search of an ethical foundation. Preserved Latin letters MA. with a pediment and scattered fragments of speeches.