, from Athens, he 342-293/292. BC. e., Greek ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï
+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL. The son of a wealthy Athenian Diopeyta, studied at the Lyceum in Theophrastus. At Ephebos corresponding to our military service, M. was a friend of Epicurus. Uncle M., and possibly a literary mentor, was ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï
+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL Alexis, a friend since the days of coeducation at the Lyceum - Demetrius Faleronsky, the ruler of Athens, put Macedonians in 317-307 years. After the fall of his regime M. at greater risk. However, it is up to his death did not leave Athens, despite the fact that he invited to his court in Alexandria, Ptolemy I. He led a life of a man, was aware of his connections with the famous hetaerae Taidoy and Glikeriya. He drowned while swimming at Piraeus. - M. writing is easy and has created more than 100 comedies (we know 109 names, but among them, perhaps there is a double title), not all of these plays were set in Athens, and some did not put in the poet's life. His stage debut was anger (Orge; 321 g.). M. won only 8 of stage victories in life giving Philemon.
Loud fame he had acquired only after death, becoming a favorite writer of the educated public, readable in the Greco-Roman world (Egypt, Gaul) up to V in. n. e., which put above Aristophanes and along with Homer. A Roman imitators of Plautus and Terence, he became a true ancestor of European comedy, born of comedy novoatticheskoy. All original works of M. disappeared in the era of late antiquity, as the Greek school attitsistov recognized as a model for imitation only Attic dialect V and VI centuries. BC. e. submitted to the comedies of Aristophanes. From the creative heritage of M. left only a large number of fragments. Only papyri from Egypt have brought more extensive pieces of text M, but in 1959. - The only completely come down a play - Hermit (Dyskolos). Understanding the works of M. in the future becomes more detailed, open, ongoing, the results confirm the correctness of commendable creativity comedy in antiquity.
Comedy M. we now know from large extracts from his plays and only the whole play, . found on papyrus, . by numerous small fragments (over 100), . deliver to us via quotes, . same way, . through the works of other writers, . extant information about his work, . on transcriptions of his plays Roman followers (works of Plautus and Terence),
. The most we know the play - this is referred to Hermit, . or Misanthrope (Dyskolos e Misanthropos; 316), . comedy characters, . risuyuschaya image mistrustful and gall of the old Attic peasant Knemona, . by a sudden turn of fate forced to change its hostile attitude towards people; girl with a severed streak (Perikeiromene), . story of a warrior, . his jealous mistress; Samiyka (Samia), . comedy with a complicated intrigue of his father, . unsuspecting, . that his son led his mistress, and has from her child; Court of Arbitration (Epitrepontes), . history of the disintegrating marriage - a young gentleman learns about his wife's pregnancy too early, . suspected of premarital sex, . while he himself, . unrecognized, . took her another girl with a wedding feast,
. This piece has a complex intrigue, leading eventually to the discovery of truth, probably best known to us comedies M
. Next to it should be put Shield (Aspis), . comedy, . in large part (more than half) come down to us in a papyrus, . published in the 70's, it tells the story of the Athenian family, . plot revolves around the property, . which is the military armor presumed dead boys,
. We also have extensive excerpts from plays Farmer (Georgos), . Hero (Heros), . The marked deity (Theophorumene), . Kifared (Kitharistes), . Flatterer (Kolaks), . Perinfiyanka (Perinthia), . Ghost (Phasma) and recently found a piece of comedy hater (Misumenos) and Sikiontsy (Sikyonioi),
. In comedies M. invariably present images of fathers - the elders, . harsh or lenient, . stingy or generous, young people - the frivolous, . model or amended in the course of action; "good" and "bad" hetaerae young daughters of the townspeople, all kinds of slaves, . of fools, . receiving beatings, . to cunning, . directing the course of events; Warriors, . Accident love to noisy Bakhvalov; inherited from ancient comedy figures parasites and inflated cooks,
. In general, the surrounding affluent urban families, cosmopolitan by removing the political realities of the era
. The core action is sometimes the disclosure of the nature of the protagonist, . whose reactions (anger, . Mistrust, . greed) determine the development of, . and sometimes convoluted plot, . leading eventually to combine the two lovers or receiving state, . often these goals are intertwined,
. The repertoire of motifs is not too rich: seduced by a girl, throw or abducted children, separated families and inevitable in all the mature works of M. time anagnorismos (recognition, for example, . recognition by parents of children allegedly killed), . but the writer's art was manifested in the interplay of motives and build on the traditional typecasting individual, . perfectly outlined characters, . in which there were no extremes: either black, . nor white, . but almost always provided with a feature, . unpopular,
. Atmosphere comedies M. marked sympathy to all bred into the image and understanding of human lives and situations, unobtrusive didaktichnostyu. This makes the work of M. phenomenon is not as colorful as the passion-filled old Aristophanes comedy, but pleasant, interesting, which influence the thinking. M Philosophy. resigns himself to the variability of human destiny, which control the deity (the most powerful of which - Case (Tyche)), showing itself in the human characters. The most important requirements for a person - understanding and sympathy for others.
Indirectly, this philosophy reveals numerous brilliant in literary terms Maxim-gnomes, scattered in pieces. It is from them are mostly fragments, . extant in quotes, . of them also formed part of the authentic, . part filled with strangers, . not Menandrovymi, . utterances collected, . like Odnostishiya (Gnomai monostichoi), . is an educational texts for schools and distributed in the era of late antiquity and the Byzantine period, . were translated into Syriac, . Arabic, . Old Slavonic languages,
. Comedy M. built on a certain scheme, which for many centuries has become the canonical. Content of the play explained, inherited from the prologue of Euripides (sometimes pronounced deity), . after it should have 5 acts, . separated outlined in the text, only the notes choir, . the first appearance of which declares one of the actors, . but the chorus was not his own text, and he played no role in the action of the play,
. Stage dialogues written iambic trimeter, and other parts - trochaic tetrameter. The language of M. was Attic dialect, clearly gravitating to the spoken language of educated circles of Athens.
Some heroes are marked individual linguistic style, in the shield even parodied Doric dialect, invested in the mouth psevdolekarya. M. avoid every kind of vulgarity in the expressions, leaving the rough elements of comedy only in the scenes with the cooks and servants. Are rare in his allusions to contemporary events and his personality, if developed economic theme is no political allusions, although M. able to realistically recreate the background as a stage and place behind the scenes of events (eg, the battle with the barbarians, the bodies strewn battlefield in the shield). It perfectly recreates the features of everyday life, understands the public institutions and laws, repeatedly, even defining action of the play as a shield and Sikiontsah.