ORIGAMI (Origenes)( Greek philosopher and theologian)
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Biography ORIGAMI (Origenes)
Origen; Origenes, OK. 185-ca 254 years. n. e., Greek philosopher and theologian. Excellent connoisseur of the Bible and Greek philosophy. Born in Alexandria, he studied at katehisticheskoy school under the direction of Clement of Alexandria, attended lectures Neo-Platonist Ammonius Sakka. After his father's death and confiscation of assets to support themselves and their family lecturing. In 202 g. was appointed head of school in Alexandria. In this position he remained until 215 g. Many traveled, visited Rome, Arabia, Greece, in Antioch, he listened Mammeya Julia, mother of the future Emperor Alexander Severus. In 231 g. received the rank of the hands of the bishops of Caesarea and Jerusalem. Bishop of Alexandria to accept this dedication, but the synod was convened in Alexandria sentenced About. to exile.
About. settled in Caesarea in Palestine, where he founded his own school katehizy and devoted himself to literary and preaching activity. During the persecution under Detsii was imprisoned and died under torture. - Theological views about. were formally condemned in Rome in 399, then the Synod of Constantinople in 543; V World Council (Constantinople II) in 553 g. admitted About. heretic. O. was a prolific writer, . He wrote books about 6000, survived only a small number, . mainly in Latin translations of Jerome or Rufinus free transcription of Aquileia, in the Greek language we know anthology of essays O., . published by Basil the Great and Gregory the Theologian named Filokaliya (Grace), and excerpts and passages in Katenev,
. Literary Heritage On. includes dogmatic, ascetic, apologetic writings, interpretations and comments to the Bible and theological writing. The dogmatic works are: On the basis of (Peri archon; after 220, at 4 kn.) Represents the first systematic exposition of Christian doctrine.
From the original preserved fragments in Filokalii, and we walked all the way to the Latin translation of Rufinus, refined, however, on the contrary to the views. Around this composition turned theological disputes, but it contains the views that differ from the official doctrine of the Church, have led to the announcement of. heretic. Other dogmatic works have survived in fragments: About Resurrection (Peri anastaseos; 218) and patterns (Stromateis) - in this work the author tried to reconcile Christian dogma with the philosophical views of Plato, Aristotle, and Numenius. Ascetic works: About Prayer (Peri euches; ca. 233) contains passages on the subject of prayer in general, and comment on the Lord's Prayer in particular; vocation to martyrdom (Eis martyrion protremptikos; 235 g.) was written during the persecution of Christians under the Emperor Maximin Truck. The most resounding success in ancient times enjoyed an apologetic work about. Against Kelso (Kata Kelsu; 245-248 gg., 8 kn.; Preserved completely) is written in a polemic with 178 g. book Kelso word of truth. O. beats, sentence by sentence, Kelso attacks against Christianity, putting forward as the main reasons that the Church is still alive after so much persecution, and the fact that Christianity spread throughout the world. This work, which shows a great erudition of the author, is the most thorough and most deployed ancient apology of Christianity.
The epochal significance was the analysis of the text of the Old Testament, who bore the name Shestiknizhie (Heksapla; after 212 g.; Save. fr.) edition included the above six parallel texts of Scripture: Hebraic original Jewish text in Greek transcriptions, translations of the Septuagint and Aquila (II in. n. e.) Simmaha (III in. n. e) Feodosiona (II in. n. e.). O. compared a Jewish text with the text of the Septuagint, identified additions and deletions and in some places corrected the mistranslation. This work on. reduced to the Four Books (Tetrapla), and Psalm dedicated Devyatiknizhie (Enneapla). Old and New Testament On. commented in a threefold form: 1. brief notes (Scholia) with linguistic and historical explanations of the most difficult words and turnovers (preserved fragments), 2. sermons (homilite), in which issues related to individual parts of Holy Scripture and the resulting moral precepts, 3. Comments (tomoi) of a scientific nature, including the linguistic and substantive explanation, theological and philosophical notes.
From more than 600 homilite remained quite large extracts in Filokalii and Katenev, as well as Latin translations of Jerome and Rufinus (of 173) of 291 comments survived 16. Of the 100 letters about the theological. reached us only 2: to Julius African about the Book of Daniel and Gregory the Miracle Worker, in which the author prizyvaetispolzovat wealth of Greek culture. The form letter was also not preserved an essay (in 2 books.) Addressed to Bishop Fabian of Rome, where O. protected from charges of dissent. In 1941, Mr.. Tire on the papyrus was found record of the discussion about. with Heraclides on the unity of God, the immortality of the soul and the resurrection from the dead. O. had before it a state stenographers and copyists have recorded his thoughts. He worked very quickly, which is reflected in the form of his writings, his style bears the imprint of untreated oral presentation.
About. not care about the literary and stylistic ornamentation, the shape of his writings careless, style is heavy and sprawling, congested repetitions. O. not played a significant role in the history of literature, his area is limited to commenting on the merits of texts and theology. Great importance was commented edition of the Septuagint, and commentary to the Bible became a model for future interpretation of Scripture. As theologian On. first outlined the Christian dogma of extremely high scientific level. He had a great influence on subsequent generations: all the later of the Greek patristic writings based on the OS, and all that Christian philosophy had learned from the Neo-Platonism, there were only variations of his views.