Parmenides (Parmenides)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography Parmenides (Parmenides)
Parmenides; Parmenides, from Eleja in Southern Italy, genus. app. 540 or ca. 515 g. BC. e., Greek philosopher. Place of the noble and wealthy family. Apparently, the laws made for the residents Eleja. On 65 year of his life in Athens, Greece. Contrary to the prevalent view in antiquity, P. was not a disciple of Xenophanes, although the concept of God in the past and has influenced his views. P. founded the Eleatic school, his pupil was Zeno of Elea. Philosophical views of P. reflected in his poem On Nature (Peri physeos; ca. 480 g. BC. e.), which read more in the IV. n. e. In the introduction to the poem P. described his journey, accompanied by daughters of the sun from the house to the dwelling of the Light the Night, where he met with Justice (Dike), and to discover the truth (aletheia; is the first part of the poem) and the causes of human errors (this is its second part). From the works of some 150 hexameters preserved. According to AP, there is a single, eternal, still exists in the form of a ball. As beings can not exist, and nothingness can not exist, then nothing comes from nothing and nothing is returned. Being can be known only by reason, "for being and thinking the same thing". Nothingness is impossible to understand.
P. casts a false sense-perception as an instrument of knowledge and recognizes the mind. P. was a supporter of the deductive method in philosophy. The cause of human error lies in the representation of the existence of two different and opposing world principles: light and darkness. In the second part of his poem P. criticized Heraclitus (recognizing the existence of being and nothingness in all things), the Pythagoreans, speaking about the existence of 10 pairs of opposites, and possibly the Ionian natural philosophers (Anaximander, Anaximenes and Thales). Philosophy II. found an incredible response. The possibility of coexistence of birth and death, movement and multiplicity. Ontology of Plato's philosophy stems from P. Thanks to Plato, Plotinus and Proclus ontology P. dominant in European philosophy before the start of new era. The essence of this ontology is understood differently. Some consider him the father of materialism, "and others -" the father of idealism, "because in his works can be found evidence of one or both. P. is one of the heroes who gave the names of Plato's dialogues.