OLEXANDRIYSKE Philo (Philon)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography OLEXANDRIYSKE Philo (Philon)
Philo of Alexandria; Philon, 10 g. BC. E.-after 40 g. n. e., Greek philosopher. Came from a wealthy and influential Jewish family (his brother was charge d'affaires and the banker of the Jewish king Herod Agrippa, and his nephew became a Roman procurator of Judea). Winter 39/40 g. F. arrived in Rome at the head of the Embassy of the Jews of Alexandria to ask the emperor Caligula for the Protection of. In Rome, according to legend, F. met with the Apostle Peter. F. was a Hellenistic Jew, who knew not the Jewish language, and much more steeped in Greek philosophy (Plato, Aristotle and Posidonius neopifagoreytsah) than in Judaism. F. nowhere mentions the basic concepts of the Jewish religion (for example, on the election of the Jewish people by God). He was foreign and Jewish laws, which say rabbis. F. like to point out to Jews and Gentiles to the knowledge of the true path of God and righteous life.
He left numerous works, whose names are usually quoted in the Latin version (the original Greek form of drops). Works F. can be divided into: 1) philosophical and 2) historical-apologetic, and 3) commentary and interpretation, 4), taxonomic-theological. Philosophical works FM, . authenticity of which sometimes challenged, . remained only partially (Quod omnis probus liber sit - Every righteous person is free; De aeternitate mundi - the eternity of the world) or in translation (Alexander sive de eo quod rationem habeant bruta animalia - Alexander, . or that, . that irrational animals have minds; De providentia-On Providence),
. Among the historical-apologetic writings F. important source of studying the history of the Alexandrian Jews and the Roman Empire during the reign of Caligula are: Against Flaccus (Contra Flaccum), . product (its beginning is not preserved), . which Flaccus, . former prefect of Egypt, . reflects in-exile of his plight, . seeing in it the punishment for the persecution of the Jews of Alexandria, as well as the Embassy to Gaius (Legatio ad Gaium), . constitutes part of a larger work on virtue (De virtutibus), . describing the persecution of the Jews (and here we find a description of the unsuccessful embassy F,
. by Caligula)
. Apologetic nature of the works were: The life of Moses (De vita Mosis) in 2 books, . Moses represents the ideal ruler, . legislator, . priest and the prophet and general apology for the Jews, . of which survived only part of the first book (under the Greek name Apologia hyper Iudaion - In defense of the Jews), . which contains reports of the Essenes, perhaps, . part of a general apology for the Jews was also preserved an essay on contemplative life (De vita contemplativa), . which describes the life of the Jewish sect of physicians in the Egyptian desert,
. For comments AF: allegorical commentary on Genesis (beginning of Life. 2, . 1), . main product of F., . retained with some gaps, . as well as a brief commentary on the Pentateuch (possibly, . unfinished) in the form of questions and answers, . of whom survived (in Armenian translation) only comment on the books of Genesis and Exodus, as well as in taxonomy and theological writings, . such as the creation of the world (De opificio mundi), . list of biblical patriarchs (preserved fragments of Abraham and Joseph) and the writings on the Law of Moses, . starting point for F,
. always been the Greek Septuagint, which reads, including accents and punctuation marks, he felt inspired.
F. also tried to prove that the contents of the Pentateuch can be reconciled with the philosophy of mind and. For this purpose he used allegorical interpretation, has long been applied by the Stoics to the poems of Homer, and the introduction to Judaism Aristobulus (eg, F. introduced the Patriarchs as the types stoic ideals of virtue). However, F. not only was a supporter of an allegorical interpretation of biblical texts. He believed that the laws of Moses and ritual prescriptions remain binding. According to F., a man must seek knowledge of the nature of God and reunite with them. This can be achieved only through the ecstasy, which is an act of divine grace, which can earn the prayers and purity of life and thoughts of man. F. was the creator of "gradual Alexandrian metaphysics (God-Logos-material world). Logos (a concept that combines elements of Stoicism, Jewish teachings on wisdom and Egyptian mythology) was a connecting link between the transcendent (God) and the material world.
Views GF, apparently, had no effect on Jewish thought. But they are faced with interest on the part of Christians, who recognized the F. almost the Father of the Church. To work F. accessed Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Ambrose (who was called the Latin Philo) and Augustine. Application of an allegorical interpretation of the Bible and the connection of biblical revelation and philosophical analysis paved the way for further development of Christian theology and philosophy. Despite the low originality, F. played a major role in the history of ancient thought as an intermediary between Hellenic philosophy, on the one hand, and Christianity and Neoplatonism - on the other.