Pindar (Pindaros)( Greek lyric poet)
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Biography Pindar (Pindaros)
Pindar; Pindaros, from Thebes, ca. 518-OK. 438 years. BC. e., Greek lyric poet. Born in areas adjacent to Fivam Kenokelaf. Came from an aristocratic family. He was brought up and studied in Thebes, and then went to Athens to pick up the music education. Early poetic activity began. According to legend, he competed with the poetess Corinna, who also dared to teach him how to write songs. Probably, he competed with Simonides and his nephew Vakhilidom. During the decline of choral lyric poetry, which grew out of her tragedy rapidly blossomed in democratic Athens, P. continued his choral lyric in its various genres. He has found admirers among the wealthy aristocrats, kings and tyrants. The earliest known works of P. - Pythian Ode X, written for Gippokla Thessalian of the genus Aleadov, the winner in double running at 498 g. In 490 g. at Delphi P. the first time started a relationship with the court Feron, tyrant Akragi in Sicily. During the Persian wars native P. Thebes were on the side of the invaders. After the victory of the Greeks of Thebes suffered an acute crisis, which is disadvantageous effect on the position of P. He tried to find protection from favorable to him aristocrats of the island of Aegina, for which he wrote later epinikia.
Then, at the invitation had gone to Sicily, he lived in 476-474 years. the courts of Hieron I at Syracuse and Feron in Akrage. There he praised in his songs of victory, won at the games these masters (Olympic Odes I, II, III; Pythian Odes I, II, III) or their relatives and friends (Olympic ode VI, Nemean Ode I, IX). He also wrote songs of praise and banquet. At the height of his fame and success of P. returned to his homeland, where they receive orders from the most famous athletes of the Greek world. Relations with Sicilian lords maintained for some time, but died soon Feron (472), and Hieron inclined to poetry Vakhilida. The last ode to the victory chariot Hieron was written by P. 470 g. (Pythian ode I). In 462-461 years. P. wrote for Arkesilaya king of Cyrene, whose victory in the competition chariots Mr. honored long and beautiful songs (Pythian ode IV and V). He died, probably in Argos during the presentation in the theater. He was buried in Thebes. - Alexandrian scientists shared creativity n. 17 books on the genre principle: Hymns - 1 kn., . peany (songs in honor of Apollo) - 1 book., . praises - 2 kn., . Parfenov (songs for chorus girls) - 2 books., . giporhematy (dance song) - 2 books., . ENCOM (praise) - 1 book., . friction - 1 Ch., . epinikia (songs in honor of the victories at the games) - 4 kn,
Fully preserved only in books containing epinikia from the rest survived only fragments (especially known fragment praises, praising the "violets crowned Athens, a city that P. never liked) was almost a quarter of the creative heritage, P., epinikia were the most known, readable, they ensured the poet's fame through the ages. They were divided on the books by title obschegrecheskih big games, with whom they were related: I. Olympic, II. Pythian, III. Nemean, IV. Isthmian. This is a product of the different nature. Most epinikia are two kinds: short, do not contain the mythical narrative, sung immediately after the victory (Ol. IV, V, XI, XII, XIV; Pif. VII, Him. II) and the long, detailed songs which are usually performed at home the winner at hosted on this occasion. But some of the odes of this collection are not epinikia in the narrow sense of the word, such as Pif. II and III represent a poetic epistle to Hieron, Eastman. III was written in honor of Xenocrates of Akragi after his death, and Him. XI celebrates the entry of Aristagoras Tenedy office holding their. One of the songs, Pif. XII for Midas of Akragi, hailed the victory in a music contest.
Epinikia P. - A celebration and official song, with strong religious overtones, made according to traditional rules of choral song. They have a strophic structure, usually a triad (stanza antistrophe, epod). Each song had its own rhythm and melody. Their content was traditional. In each, there has specific components: a message of victory and the information about the winner, the glorification of the athlete, his family and homeland, prayers and requests to the gods, moral precepts and instructions, and finally, gnomes - Maxim. Longer epinikia also contained a legend, and sometimes several. It would be complementary to the victory and gave her a special meaning. She also had to ensure that posthumous fame for future generations. Myth helped implement an ode to its functions. Its contents are concerned the history of the family of the motherland or the addressee, the legends associated with the location where the game or the history of the original games. Sometimes the myth illustrated the moral teachings. Myth II was presented. in a manner quite different from the epic. P. describes only the climactic moments of the legend, leaving the rest of knowledge and imagination of listeners. He never starts a myth from the very beginning and does not carry the story to the end, the transitions between parts of the ode, rather sharply (often only half of it) and as if by chance. The link is often the moral maxim. World mental representations of P. traditional for aristocrat.
Important role played by innate nobility, inherited from ancestors. But it is necessary and our own efforts and the willingness of those costs, which entails the participation in games. Glorifying the winners, R. represented the embodiment of aristocratic arete (that word has no exact counterpart in the Russian language, . it can be translated as "dignity", . "Skill", . "Valor"), . this concept were: belonging to the noble family, . wealth, . beauty, . physical strength and agility,
. Important role in the world II. played by the gods, and in particular the Delphic Apollo, patron of the aristocracy. Its representatives should always be mindful of the boundaries set by the people. In songs P. before us is not so much the gods themselves, how they act, changing the world and penetrating all and everything. Language II. difficult, full of bold metaphors, complex periphrasis, frequent ellipses. Abundance of stylistic figures and semantic games, coupled with the technique of rapid transition from one motive to another makes it difficult to perceive poetry. During the life of P. won loud glory. When 335 g. Alexander the Great took Thebes, he has protected from the destruction of the house II. in deference to the poet. In the Bibliotheca Alexandrina diligently studied his work. In the canon of lyricists, he was awarded first place. In Rome II. honored, but also considered that it is too difficult to imitate, as expressed by Horace in his famous ode (IV 2). Late authors of theoretical works, for example, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and the anonymous author of the treatise On the heights seen in the P. great poet. In IV. n. e.
Prudentius attempted to imitate it in writing epinikia in honor of the martyrs. Epinikia and other songs P. read a long time in Egypt this fact we must set papyrus finds. The first edition epinikia in modern times has appeared in the XVI century. Renaissance poets and encouraged to imitate. The most prominent imitators belonged to the "French Pindar" Pierre Ronsard. The so-called Pindarova was fashionable poetic ode to the classic genre of poetics in Britain, France, Russia (Knyazhnin) and Poland.