, Titus Maccius
, OK. 250-184 years. BC. e., Roman ï¦ï+ï+ï¦ï¦ïTï
+ï¨ÿ-ï¦ÿL. Born in Sarsina in Umbria (sovr. Saraceno), very early came to Rome as a free man, but a foreigner (peregrinus), because Sarsina, located in northern Italy, had no such privileges as other cities Italic. From their edges P. made excellent knowledge of the Latin language. In Rome he was engaged from the very beginning stage craft, although it is unknown whether he was an actor, or someone from the technical staff. The ancients also talked about trade travels P. and incurred losses on the ensuing consequence of poverty, which forced him to become a millstone. However, these data are significant enough, we know a lot of similar biographies. - With regard to the chronology of the plays GP, we exactly know only two dates: 200 g. BC. e. he put comedy Stihus, and 191 g. BC. e. (already old) - a comedy Psevdol. Period of literary activity P. covers the years 220-184. BC. e. This period of war with Carthage, and then victories over Hannibal and Macedonia, which confirm that the political supremacy of Rome in the Mediterranean world.
At the same time, a lively cultural life, and greatly increased Greek influence increased the need for theatrical performances. In the comedy was the first GP, who wrote and directed more plays than preserved. The number attributed to him comedies comes to 130, but Varro declared authentic, only 21 of them on the basis of analysis of style. It is this canon Varro came to our time. We know 20 plays P. completely and one, preserved in large fragments. Late Antiquity authors called in addition for another 30 comedies. Save the following comedy: Amphitryon, . Donkey comedy (Asinaria), . Treasure (Aulularia), . Sisters (Bacchides), . Captives (Captivi), . Young wife (Casina), . Comedy of the pitcher (Cistellaria), . Curculio, . Epidik, . Brothers (Manaechmi), . Merchant (Mercator), . Bragging warrior (Miles Gloriosus), . Fears (Mostellaria), . Pers, . Karfagenyanin (Poenulus), . Psevdol, . Rope (Rudens), . Stihus, , . Grubiyan (Truculentus), . Comedy about the basket (Vidularia),
. Sam P. divided his comedy to "serious" and "humorous", and Terence and his commentators were divided on all comedy statariae and motoriae, ie, the "quiet" and "rapid". In accordance with this classification, most of the pieces P. should have been ranked as the second category, and the captives, a comedy about the pitcher, rope, three coins Stihus and possibly Comedy of shopping - for the first. Only Amphitryon P. belong to a special category, which he called tragicomedy, because these plays appear mythic personality, carried from the tragedy.
Consequently, entered into use later than the term "tragicomedy" owes its emergence P. According to today's terminology, "serious" pieces P. could be defined as the actual drama, are not in the classical sense either tragedies or comedies. Among the "humorous" pieces can be distinguished: comedy characters (Treasure, . Bragging warrior, . Grubiyan), . sitcom (Sisters, . Epidik, . Fears, . Donkey comedy, . Pers, . Karfagenyanin, . Psevdol), . comedy of errors (Amphitryon, . Brothers), . farces (The merchant, . Young's wife),
. But we should not rigidly adhere to this division, because sometimes the play can include just a few mentioned categories and difficult to isolate the element clearly dominates the other. P. was the first Roman poet who worked in line with only one literary genre, namely - palliata. According to our current notions, it was not original in his works: like his predecessors, he handles the Greek samples, almost exclusively owned by New Comedy: Menander, Difila, Philemon. He carefully selected the material for his plays, always with care being taken to bring the audience laugh, so sometimes refusing to follow a recognized authority, he chose to rework the play less well-known author. For example, the basis for donkey's comedy was a little-known comedy Demofila. P. not limited to the Greek translation of the play, . often serious or exciting, . but I actors, . scene, . combined into one several pieces, . to amuse the audience, . instead of boring dialogue inserted solo parts, accompanied by clarinet - edging,
Most pieces P. We meet these famous piping in the form of monologues, duets, quartets and even Trio, written in various meters. Two comedies end with a ballet (Stihus, Persia), in the comedy rope, we see something like a chorus drevneatticheskoy comedy - the performance of fishermen pulling the rope in time with recitative. Comedy young wife, but farcical nature, carries obvious features of modern musical comedy or vaudeville: almost everywhere in her dialogues replaced by lots of singing. The situation in comedies P. remained Greek, but in the Greek world can be traced much purely Roman elements - the names of the gods and the names of localities, legal and military terms, the words from the dictionary of the administrative, Roman place names, etc.. This has facilitated contact with the audience and the public perception of the play, is not prepared for such a loose interpretation of the genre perspective. The plot consisted of the motives novoatticheskoy comedy: the conflict between fathers and sons, . affair and frivolity sons, . parsimony and rigor (rarely - indulgence) fathers, . separation and reunion, . trickery clever slaves, . intrigue, . errors, . conglomeration of obstacles and fun, . happy ending,
. In linking these options P. demonstrated unparalleled ingenuity, completely unconcerned about the logical development of the action or the depiction of characters. He sought only entertain the audience and their goals are achieved by an excess of humor in his comedies. He has perfected a situational comedy and razor quickening pace of the game. Before the spectator passes galaxy images, typical for a new comedy: in addition to the above, this double-faced pimp, beggars, cooks, gluttons, talkative cook, doling out rich, warriors bragging insidious hetaera.
In the composition of plays P. play an important role prologues that open the play the message about the author and the name of a Greek original, and then outlining the request to the public about the favors and attention. The exhibition works, which in the Greek New Comedy was in the prologue, in P. often takes the dramatic form and is transferred to the first scenes of the play. After the prologue the action develops continuously, without division into acts, and the necessary breaks filled with P. monologues, sometimes associated with the action itself, serve only for the amusement of the audience, and sometimes for additional characteristics of persons or events, but in fact are separated by the various stages of. So-called "Dialogues on the side" also serve to entertain the audience and are humorous inserts. Recreational significance were also epilogue summarizing the play.
His successes Comedy P. must also language. This conversational speech (sermo vulgaris) of the Roman people, figurative, colorful language, varied in their shades: a refined and sensitive, then a sparkling sense of humor, often rough, and even vulgar. P. can skillfully play street slang, and in the right places to use neologisms and foreign-language blotches. Language of his plays is quite different from the refined, "pure" language of educated circles with Terence. Effect P. was strong in the ancient culture and modern culture. In the Middle Ages to read little, knew only 8 of his comedies, and enjoyed great popularity Terence, elegant, and not overstep the bounds set by tradition. But in the Renaissance interest in P. increases, his art ok5azyvaet huge impact on the development of European comedy. Especially close to P. was Moliere.