Polybius (Polybios)( The Greek historian)
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Biography Polybius (Polybios)
Polybius; Polybios, from Megalopolya in Arcadia, OK. 200 OK. 118 years. BC. e., the Greek historian. Son Likorta, a powerful politician and head of Achaean League, a youth participated in the military and political life. In 169 g. III during the Macedonian war was Hipparchus (cavalry leader). I went to the embassy to the consul Manlio. After the victory at Pidnoy (168 g. BC. e.) Romans seized 1,000 hostages, most notable Achaean families, among whom was P. In Rome, he made friends with the sons of Emilia Paula, the winner under Pidnoy, and especially with Scipio the Younger. Released along with the other hostages, in 151 g. returned to his homeland, made numerous trips, often came to Rome at the invitation of Scipio, who used his knowledge of military affairs. In 146. BC. e. witnessed the capture of Carthage. In the same year, after the capture of Corinth by the Romans and the destruction of P. assumed a mediating role in the settlement of relations in the conquered Greece. Apparently, P. participated in the siege Numantia Scipio in 133 g. BC. e. The last years of life P. spent at home, has died at the age of 82 years, probably due to a fall from a horse. - The main product of P. - History in 40 books - a world history in which avtior showed how within 50 years, from the beginning II Punic War to the end of III of Macedon, Rome united under their rule almost the whole inhabited world at that time.
P., a Greek, was the first historian who discovered the greatness of Rome as Greeks and Romans themselves. The reasons for the victories of the Romans P. seen in the tactical perfection Legion, as well as in the mixed state structure of Rome, combining elements of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. To clarify the picture, P. described in the preamble of the events I Punic War, and in the process of writing the next part of the work has expanded the original plan describing the capture and destruction of Carthage and Corinth. Thus, the work covering the period 264-144 years. BC. e. Stories From P. survived 5 primary books, . the rest we have in the excerpt, . famous of which is an excerpt from the book VI (the retreat of the state, . forms of government, . comparison of the social system of Rome with the political structure of the Greek states and Carthage),
. P. described the events chronologically, in the Olympiads, imitating in this Timeyu. With regard to contemporary facts P. (in accordance with the traditions of Greek historiography) has relied primarily on its own memory and eyewitness, . but for the reconstruction of the events of the past used the work of their predecessors, . interpreting them in light of their own knowledge,
. Sometimes he turned to the original documents, such as decrees of the Roman Senate, trade agreements, documents from the archives of the Greek. His predecessors, and especially the Timaeus, P. sharply criticized, in the case setting out its own historical method. On the one hand, he spoke out against excessive dramatization of the events, which usually lead to a distortion of the truth for the sake of effect.
Historians of this school, whose representative was Filarh, P. blames the fact that they act more tragic poets than historians. On the other hand, arguing with Tim, argues that historians were not familiar enough with the events described only from books. He should know by personal impressions of the country, about which he writes, and above all - the place for major battles. Also, he must be the military and the politician to his work could usefully read the leaders and statesmen. In this concept, emanating from Thucydides, P. proclaimed the principle of impartiality of the historian, but he did not follow him or to his contemporaries or predecessors in respect. Sometimes it is filled with anger, hatred, frustration, in another part - admiration. He idealizes his homeland and the Achaean League. P. not sought to colorful narrative. His style is rough and hard. But sometimes it becomes very lively, and some scenes, such as ad king Ptolemy V and related events in Alexandria, written clearly and interestingly. Other works of P.: Filopomen of 3 books - praise to the leader of Achaean League, written after 183, and also no conservation of the works devoted to tactics, and a monograph on the Numantinskoy war. The history of P. has repeatedly Livy, sometimes simply translating it. From the Greek historians case P. continued Posidonius and Strabo, it was used Diodorus and Plutarch. In the Byzantine era came retelling of the product (cm. introd. article).