PYTHAGORAS (Pythagoras)( Greek philosopher and mathematician)
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Biography PYTHAGORAS (Pythagoras)
Pythagoras; Pythagoras, VI in. BC. e., Greek philosopher and mathematician. Born on the island of Samos, who had left, possibly fleeing from the regime of the tyrant Polycrates. Went to Italy, where he settled in Crotone OK. 530 g. BC. e. founded the first Greek school of philosophy, which was also the religious center. Access to it was open to women. School students were related to the material and spiritual community. At first they were kind of harsh initiation, after which they were considered to have been adopted and given the secrets of life and research schools. Person P. covered with legends, and our not always reliable information about him basically go back to three sources: Diogenes Laertes, lamblichus and Porfiry. Sam P., apparently, did not write anything, but members of his school were engaged in writing activities, along with scientific.
To this day, unknown whether the approval of the famous P. indeed his discoveries. Flourishing school has a line VI and V centuries. BC. e., while the Pythagoreans came to power in many Italic cities, for example, in Croton, but the board was faced with the opposition, which for several decades after the death of P. led to bloody conflicts and, ultimately, to the decline of the power of the school around the middle of V in. BC. e. After this defeat, the Pythagoreans lived absently, without creating major centers and their teaching has lost unity in matters of principle. Authors IV in. BC. e. distinguish two groups of the Pythagoreans: "akusmatikov", which adhered to the principles of the old school and developed a largely religious cult, and "mathematicians", engaged in the exact sciences. At the turn of the V and IV centuries. Pythagoreans had not considered the school, although sometimes it appeared under the eminent scientists (Archytas), and at the turn of the IV and III centuries. BC. e. them for almost nothing was said. Subsequently, the Pythagorean revived in Rome and Alexandria in the I. BC. e. the so-called neopifagoreystve (Nigidy Figuli, Apollonius of Tyana, Numenius). Ancient sources name the names of several dozen of the Pythagoreans, and the majority is nothing more unknown. Achievements of the Pythagoreans in the field of mathematics, astronomy, music and art were very high and was influenced by Greek culture throughout the classical era.