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FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)

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Comments for FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)
Biography FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)
photo FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)
Yuri George Uri Fischer (George Fisher) was born in 1923. in Berlin in the family of an American journalist and writer Louis Fischer, and the interpreter of the Soviet Embassy in Germany Bertha, Mark.

In 1927, Mr.. family moved to Moscow, where his father was sent to work correspondent for Nation and Baltimore Sun. From 1931 to 1933. Fisher again in Berlin, together with his brother lives in a family of German Communist P. Massing, in school. After the fascist coup illegally transferred back to Moscow. He studied at the school is exemplary 32y. LEPESHINSKOGO, joined the Young Communist League. In 1939, Mr.. mother, fearing rampant Stalin's purges, not against the wishes of her son to take him in New York City.

After school, Fisher enrolled at the University of Wisconsin, but was soon drafted into the army. He served as liaison officer at the U.S. airbase at Poltava, in February 1945. provide reception Roosevelt Saki airfield near Yalta, in the year after the war was in the apparatus of the military administration of the American occupation zone of Germany.

. In 1947, completing a university degree, Fisher entered graduate school at Harvard University
. In 1948, Mr.. it initiates a large-scale research project of the postwar emigration from the Soviet Union until 1951. coordinates the work of the project pursued by the Russian Research Center at Harvard. During this period, a frequent visitor to Munich, involved in the creation of Russian libraries, assists in the formation of the Institute for the Study of History and Culture of the USSR and participated in its work. In 1952, Mr.. defended his doctoral thesis Soviet opposition to Stalin in World War

. In subsequent years, Fisher some time working in the charity fund of assistance to the new Soviet emigres, . and then switched to teaching at leading universities in the U.S., . engaged in research in the field of history, . Sovietology, . Sociology, . Political, . in the 60 years,
. often in Moscow, has written and printed. Since 1985, Mr.. retirement.

Major publications: Soviet Opposition to Stalin: A Case Study in World War 2. Cambridge., 1952. 230 p.;
Russian Liberalism: From Gently to Intelligensia. Cambridge., 1958. 240 p.;
Science and Politics: The New Sociology in the Soviet Union. NY, 1964. 66 p.;
The Soviet Union, Arms Control and Disarmament: Background Materials on Soviet attitudes. NY, 1965. 324 p.;
Science and Ideology in Soviet Society. NY, 1967. 176 p.;
American Research on Soviet Society: Guide to Specialized Studies since World War 2 by Sociologist in the United State. NY, 1967. 82 p.;
The Soviet System and Modern Society. NY, 1968. 199 p.;
Soviet Structure and Social Change in Eastern Europe: Guide to Specialized Studies Published in the West since World War 2 English, French and German. NY, 1970. 100 p.;
Ways to Selfrule: Beyond Marxism and Anarchism. NY, 1978. 244 p.

Yuri George Uri Fischer

Two passions

Remember this day

And Moses said unto the people: Remember this day,
in which ye came out of Egypt, out of the house of slavery ...
Second Book of Moses. 13 Exodus 3

We met half a century ago. I became their first chronicler. Then he wrote dispassionately as a scientist, historian. And in this story talking about their history. The same number of otherwise. Their feelings and intimate thoughts. So in my story will intertwine with dispassionate personal history with a confession.

From the motherland was the outcome of. From the same country was my. They dreamed passionately. And I dreamed of a storm of feelings in my heart. They are about the motherland, I am about all of humanity. And they are, and I dreamed of rescue, release, clean. That's what my story. About two passions.

It all started with the outcomes. From the Land of the Soviets out three times. Three times out of the house of slavery. The outcome of the first emigration of the first old-regime (over a million people). The outcome of the second, the emigration of the second military (perhaps a quarter of a million). The outcome of the third, the emigration of the third congestive (over a quarter million).

My friends were in the outcome of the second. These were Vlasov. They rebelled against Stalin's rebels are still controversial, still ambiguously perceived by many unacceptable. They made a second outcome. Highlight this outcome is not difficult.

They have a different origin. But they have only one outcome, only Vlasovites personified the country's lower classes. Embodied mortals from the backwoods, from the backwoods. People and places far away from the capital, away from the powerful, well-known, highly.

They have a different separation. But they only have Vlasovites you will find an extreme degree of loneliness. Full loneliness. They were renegades at home. Rejected in Nazi Germany. Pariahs in the West. Only Vlasovites rejected three rulers. Stalin, Hitler, in the end Uncle Sam.

And they were beheaded in a special way. Only the outcome of the military leadership was removed from the outside and suddenly: Recently, the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court considered the case on charges of <12 people> of treason and in, . they, . being intelligence agents Germany, . carried out espionage and sabotage and terrorist activities against the Soviet Union ..,
. All the defendants pleaded guilty to the charges against them and were sentenced to death ... Sentence was carried out (However, Izvestia, August 2. 1946).

The year before in Moscow, I drew attention to the attitude towards immigrants. Noticed enthusiasm outcomes. But not a military outcome, and the old-regime, not ordinary mortals, and prominent intellectuals. I also admire them the best artists, thinkers, leaders of the first outcome. Most of my teachers came out of that world from the old Russia. All these emigrants gift of the last century. However, it should do and my friends. One can think of ordinary mortals, born of our century. On the military outcome of the homeland.

About me. Born in 1923. Son of the Soviet translator and an American journalist. Both Jews. Both traveled a lot. I dreamed of as children of the last century, more peaceful than our. The championship gave politics. Dreams and a hot dispute over the states and movements, revolts and revolutions. All this was transmitted to me.

Even as a child I traveled. And many without parents. Without the parents of bright, broad-kind, but with a shaky marriage. Without nearly bachelor-father, without constantly preoccupied mother, available to me only in snatches. I lived here today, gone tomorrow. In Berlin, four years. In Ukraine, in the village and a half years. In Moscow, two and a half years. Again in Berlin and a half years. Again in Moscow for six years.

Then everything seemed clear. Born a citizen of the USSR. Traveled with a Soviet passport. Manifests itself in being oktyabrenkom, and a pioneer, and Komsomol. Absorbed all the Russian and Soviet. And views on politics are not parents, and authorities. And my idol, Marx. Not looked for the soul in his small homeland thirties. Ah, Arbat, my Arbat, you are my calling ... Religion ... fatherland ... It seems everything is clear for me in those years. As the old song, which still adore: Here is the street, so this house, here is the home that I love!

In fact, it was not so easy. Nature is not fooled. I stood diversity, plurality, mixing roots. Moreover distinguished parents. Proponents of free-style soul and love, freely living, but without capitalism. Independent companions of the Soviet system. My mother told me: One Moscow newspaper reprinted the article <Father> and in the introductory note, calling him an American bourgeois reporter. Children in the house of a communal car factory learned about this cool beat Yura ... (M. Fisher. My life in Russia. New York., 1944).

Later was the case in school, in an exemplary school between the Arbat and the embankment. Classmate blurted out: a Jew! The USSR and the Jews need to add Germany. Because I was born in Berlin. Not once lived there, went to German school. Often a child talking with his parents in German. In the lanes of Arbat boys teased: A German-pepper-sausage-rotten cabbage! He ate a mouse without a tail, and said: How delicious!

Once the classroom teacher was not cool with the boy. It seemed unfair. I said so out loud, and resigned. I removed the old age class. Condemned to a large collection. Wanted to exclude from school. Director called my act incited open rebellion, referred foreign origin.

Indeed, in Moscow, I was also normal and not normal. For abnormal in itself was ashamed and worried. Suffered, that will always be a stranger, stranger, stranger. What is now a. Sirota. Bezrodnyi, a homeless orphan. I longed opposite. Be just like home. Not his own man. Just the usual, normal. And then tried to satisfy this desire. Tried in his own.

Had in mind a single center. The center, which was inherited from their homeland and their parents. All my childhood dream of taking in the great. Dream degeneration of all people, cleanse the soul and morals. The dream of perfect equality and freedom, community and justice. In his entire life has absorbed the passion to save, free, clean man and all humanity. Intoxicated by the dreamer was trying to get along with an orphan depressed.

In children, that my passion approve all. Authorities and parents. Friends and teachers. With shestisemi years has a lot of reading. Read books, newspapers indiscriminately. Experiences pleasure from hard clear words and thoughts. Another small preferring the company of adults. I was thinking like an adult. Especially the great dream of the great hearth. Before every guest is trying to show his passion, erudition, each to express their adoration. From each tried to get praise. Being a prisoner in his arms and kissed. A fire in me growing. She grew up a storm of feelings. Here is the street, so this house, so this STRAAAST that I love!

Eve of World War II. I have changed. Change unexpected and unwelcome. Mother, father, disappointed in the Soviet system. We decided to leave Moscow and settle down in New York.
My exodus occurred in fifteen years. Separation from the homeland all confused. And tormented. In the separation of the motherland, they are the early forerunners of my friends, my ambiguous rebels also suffered, too, were confused.
Remember this day!

Rotate

I, like a river,
Severe era turned.
Akhmatova. Northern elegy, 1945

It is a harsh time of war turned, like a river, rebels. Beyond the borders of the homeland they wandered, confused, tormented. I traveled. Again traveled. It is now tormented by split. Dreamer always find something of his passionate dreams. This enthusiastic, keen. And at the same time coexist with abnormal, and even thrived. Sirota was drawn not to the. Longed normal, abnormal cursed. Horrified by his fractured plurality.

The first shelter in New York, refugees. I emigrated from Russia, Germany. Social Democrats and former Communists. Especially remember the mother's sister, Menshevik, which is very fond. In this environment, I was sheltered, even slightly not adopt. Refugees were living in poverty, without a penny, on handouts. In the United States not taken root. Could not find work. Could not find a foothold for the cause, the fight against Bolshevism. Over tea, talked about the darkness, enveloping Europe. Lamented the victory of evil. Worshiped the Social Democratic values. Dream of equality, with the bourgeois, civil liberties. Dream attracted. Fate clouded. Alienation scared.

In the American school has become an American. Because of my father I was born a U.S. citizen. Now here's the first time up there. For the first time used is not a Soviet passport, and the U.S.. And he took another name! Instead Russian Saxon. Of Jura became George. Often with the Americans, everything rasprashival, jabbered in broken English. Deepened in song and literature, the militias and Hollywood detectives.

And only then grasped the truth. The truth about the horrors at home. On the merits of the Free World. Became active as a liberal. Came out of the Komsomol. As parents, spoke out against Stalin. Hated it. Blamed. Bitterly grieved. In the Land of the Soviets stopped to see the great dream, a great hearth.

Higher Education went to get in Depth. In the countryside near Chicago. Joined publicly accessible institution, the University of Wisconsin. Fell in love with local life and the nature. He began to work in the student newspaper. Not shied away and far from the school student entertainment and amusements. At times, missed and then got drunk. I almost dropped out of university.

Got carried away by the movement of the Populists, helpers and bottom of the village. Soon felt confusion. Who am I now? Who is most? Populist? Liberal? Independent free-thinker, like the parents? Menshevik? Or still Komsomolets?

Carried away and my mentor. He was a native of Russia. Born in Bialystok. He grew up in poverty. He joined the Mensheviks. After the revolution of the fifth year in the United States fell. Away from Marxism and became a big connoisseur of the trade union movement. Books Selig Perlman (18891959) of the working class and the intelligentsia. And not just in the U.S., but also in Russia and Western Europe. I admired the depth of his intelligence, his detailed analysis of the weaknesses of the left intelligentsia. Under the influence of my mentor and the ideas of the Populists dreamed to go to the U.S. labor movement. Become a journalist and trade union work in the outback.

Earlier, while studying in the school, was presented to Eleanor Roosevelt. First, through his father, then through the Association of Young Liberals. Now the president's wife invited me to the residence of Roosevelt. Nineteen student, I stayed several times at night in the White House. Roosevelt had many conversations with me. Listened. She told me about his activities liberal, a progressive orientation of American public policy. Advised to do this assignment my calling.

She made an indelible impression on me. But his appearance. Externally, it was fashionable lady. Noble and impeccably polite. I felt more. Felt in her heart of fire and passion of the political petrel. Could feel volitional nature and deep mind. She became my idol. However, its environment, among the high ranking and wealthy liberals had not to my liking.

During the war he served in the U.S. Army. Four years of wandering in America and Europe. Diligently on duty. Concealed alienation, imitated real Americans. Out of the ordinary had become an officer. Last increase was in the twenty-one. The whole year has served on the devastated Ukraine. On the basis of U.S. shuttle flights of bombers. Was the liaison between the local American and Soviet command.

Army brought me back home. After five years of absence and enjoyed socializing with Soviet citizens, native from childhood speech. Enjoy the familiar food, songs. Enjoying the feasts of the then Allied. In love with the Soviet interpreters lieutenants who worked with the Americans. Spent vacation in Moscow. Serviced meeting of allied leaders in Yalta. Based collided with the first signs of the cold war, had suffered in the run-up clashes superpowers. Tormented every manifestation of oppression red. Again tormented by the question of who I am. Soviet? American? Neither fish nor fowl?

After the victory of the year served in Berlin. He was engaged in managerial work. Species and life Germanic capital oppressed. Killing shook the city early childhood. The most memorable meeting with former Muscovites, with two Germans, close to me before the war. In Moscow, they were refugees from Hitler. Soviet students, pioneers. Best friends brother Viti, a year younger than me. During the war years, our paths diverged. Parted dramatically.

One of us, I became the captain of the U.S. Army, that kind hybrid liberal. In the future scientist. Another lieutenant of the Red Army went with her to Berlin. Subsequently, a famous film director and party activist in East Berlin. The third lost his father in the gulag, the German party official and Soviet intelligence. In Moscow, the mother, also a party worker, to avoid the fate of her husband, she returned with her son and daughter in his native Berlin. Eighteen, he was told if you go as a volunteer is not sent to prison mother. So he had to become a military pilot. And after the war, the pilot admitted to the lieutenants and captains. Confessed defeatism, akin to the Vlasov. I have given parents and his brother's words: I always wanted to win Germany over Stalin, because he was deeply convinced that it would be much easier to overthrow Hitler than Stalin. Then he became a successful architect in West Berlin, but remained a party member and a staunch opponent of any and all authorities.

Despite these differences, our friendship blossomed again. We are bound not politics, but my first love. To Moscow, to Russia, the USSR. Connected and fog in the vision of its future. How to maintain the enthusiasm of childhood, the faith in the great dream? How to fill the power our lives, enthusiastic and sad? How not to die from the pangs of the soul and experienced? That year has made us brothers. In West Berlin, Lothar Vlokh (19231976). In East Berlin, Konrad Wolf (19251982). Here is the street, so this house, so these Braathen, that I love!

And in war, and after the war, my lifestyle has not changed. Kuriles big cigar. Many drank. Overeat, thoroughly grown fat. Tossed and tormented. Vaguely felt his burden. The burden of change, loss of bitterness. Acutely felt the loneliness. Longed love. Craved sex. I cried about his childhood. Cried foul about the war, cursing Stalin, Hitler. Wept shivorotnavyvorotnosti in relationships with women.

Eventually he returned to his university. Now worked hard in the classroom. I could not turn into the American heartland, and the homeland. Drawn after Ukraine and Berlin, after the beginning of the Cold War. I was interested in Russia. The development there of a modern society, modeled on the West. Posted Final work on this topic. Posted on the middle class in Russian history, the defeat of the liberals and the capitalists. Later he returned to this theme in two books: J. Fisher. Russian liberalism <to 1905>. Harvard., 1958; J. Fisher. The Soviet system and modern society. New York City., 1968.

More appeared one desire. I wanted to reflect, not hurrying. Much to weigh, to clearly sort, summarize much. Subjected to an understanding and rethinking the Soviet homeland, the U.S. homeland, the whole universe. The degrees thinker seduced restless wanderer. Accomplishment seduced unsettled. Decided, finally, after nine years of wandering. Decided to study Russia. And join the Cold War. Fight against Stalin. To fight for the liberation of the motherland.

Here's what I got in touch with the second emigration, with mixed fighters against Stalin. Much influenced my choice Boris Ivanovich Nikolayev (18871955). Hereditary Siberian. Scion of seven generations of priests. Rare type of both the connoisseur, and a fighter. Archivist. Researcher. Historian. Reporter. Public figure. Rebel. Sozialdemokrat. At the beginning of the war fled from Hitler. He lived in New York. We met in the refugee. He became my mentor, another from Russia.

Among the old-immigrants Nicholas first sought defectors. The first relates to the outcome of the military, or more precisely, the post-war. He visited the capital of defectors in Munich. Posted on their famous article. He became their protector and friend. He soon persuaded me, sent to Munich, provided there defector. Drew my attention and the early forerunners of the second emigration.

They appeared in the invasion of Germany. In 194,142 years the Red Army got set in a hopeless environment Germans. In captivity was about three million. I call these prisoners encircled.

In those years in captivity died not by chance. The death of the prisoners had been predetermined by the decision of Hitler to inflict more than one slaughterhouse, and two. Destroy not only Jews, homosexuals, Roma (Gypsies). But the Germans and physically handicapped. Starve and thirty millions of Russian. Germans trample international law: with all the prisoners from the Red Army not only treated as soldiers (K. Streit. No friends. Bonn., 1991). Countless encircled killed in another holocaust (Die Zeit, July 5, 1991).

. How can we explain the unprecedented number of early war? Three million encircled? This question has occupied me for many years.

. Viewpoint Nicholas was adamant
. He described it in the article: B. Nicholas. Defeatism 19411945 period and Gene. Vlasov. New Magazine (New York)., 1948. T. 18, 19. For him, encircled and only meant defeatism defeatism. Mean an attempt to remove power through defeat in war, and thus get rid of the red pharaoh. According to him, millions of intentionally throwing weapons, deliberately surrendered to the enemy.
The article began with the situation in tsarist Russia. Then defeatism almost always been from the top of the mood, look ideologues. For them, few came. Only a handful of like-minded. Was wholly different defeatism of the last war ... This defeatism is not only assumed the character of a real mass movement ... and overflowed into forms that do not know the history of any war, Russia ... There is truly ferocious fighting the Bolshevik government against the people and the people responded in kind ... The expression of this struggle were those forms which resulted defeatism ...

Defeatism conscious? And wholesale? Mentor did not convince me. And then I had a thought. She took hold of me. Passed a red thread through my doctoral thesis, a chronicle and analysis of the military outcome: J. Fisher. Soviet opposition to Stalin. Harvard., 1952. This was an inertia. Public apathy of the Soviet people, their indifference to political life.

This is not the overall quality, not feature a whole breed of people. I mean only way to survive, to adapt to surveillance and oppression on the part of. So I explained to millions of encircled. I explained as a consequence of continuous weakening of the requirements of the Kremlin after the invasion of Germany. After a year and a half, the Kremlin became less commotion. There are fewer and the new war. Of the approximately five million Red Army soldiers, captured during the war, at 194,142 years, account for three quarters.

A similar explanation was made at home. Expressed his Dmitry Volkogonov, a former Communist Party general and the recently deceased historian of Bolshevism. According to him (Triumph and Tragedy: The political portrait of Stalin. V.2. Moscow, 1989), became a decisive indifference, alienation of people from public life. Substitution of the undivided sovereignty of the people led to the emergence of a specific type of alienation, which generates in the end social apathy of people ...

In the USSR at the beginning of the war something happened to Gandhi. It happened in spite of fierce oppression, without gandiyskih exercises and going to the people. So I thought in the stormy sixties. Then I was interested in Gandhi. His struggle without violence. The focus, he set the resistance inactive. So it was. At home. In fact, ineffectual. It was then that the way had many years of political lethargy of the Soviet people.

But even inertia, as the defining reason, I'm not satisfied. Not enough of something else. In the book 1952, I mentioned this gap. However, mentioned in passing, in small type, in a footnote. Mentioned the excellent osvobozhdenku of the first emigration, always controversial and always arguing freedom fighter. Tu, a look which made me look at things from another point of view.

With Katia Lump (18691958) I met after the war. Visit her in Geneva. A few days talking about emigration, and Russia. She became interested in the military outcome. In his book, I noted that I agree with it. I agree that the Soviet system, like all well-established education, educates its members. Encourage their loyalty to their values, attachment to. These attachments are essential. They were consolidating society, associate members, weaken discontent.

Look Lump led to a new step. Forced look not only to the weakness of the Red kingdom, but also to his strong sides. I helped the second exodus of emigrants poll conducted by Harvard University. American scientists were able to identify loyalty, affection, which insisted Kuskova.

Garvardtsam been found not only real affection, household. The universal provision of education, free health service, cheap housing, securing employment; strict order. They found attachment and lofty, spiritual. Love to dream of the liberation of the October revolution, love of country, love of her past. (Poll results are summarized in the book: A. Inkeles, R. A. Bauer. Soviet citizen. Harvard., 1959).

And recently, Yuri Afanasiev radically different reasons highlighted commotion in the Kremlin. According to this historian and public figure, the scale and nature of what happened in the summer and autumn of 1941. provide sufficient grounds for believing, . that Germany's attack happened at a time, . when the Soviet Union a strategic plan for the deployment of defense forces have been canceled, . and other offensive, . proactive, . while acting, . not only <more> has not been realized, . but it was not even communicated to all those, . who it was supposed to implement,
. (War 19391945. Ed. N. Afanasyev. Moscow, 1995).

Then the confusion at the top dramatically cooled attachment to the system. But the cooling effect and the deceitfulness of beds release Germans. This state did not last long. But future Vlasov remember just such a home. Struck. In a daze. From humiliated systems. With inactive people.

Encircled and I have gone astray. And I, and they lost their native shores. Roamed freely and involuntarily. Wandered between life and death. Wandered, and when they, and me, like a river, turned grim era.

NORMAL

... all,
everything will be fine!
everything!
everything!

Lyudmila Petrushevskaya. On the way god Eros, 1993

Not exercise my dual solution. At least not to carry out immediately. There was smooth, my attention in science, in an ivory tower. Of the unsettled I really became a secured. But the restless wanderer did not become a power thinker. How I was, so I stayed. First, because the second decision taken by me. Solutions to address the release of the motherland.

Contact Vlasov was conjugated with the struggle. Part of the struggle centered around the view of the activities Vlasovites. After the war, and in the red realm, and the free world prevailed, the same score. Prevailing view, it seemed, once and for all: Vlasov betrayed their homeland, they were the enemy, in this case is closed they. My view on the matter was not so one-sided. I immediately carried away by scientific testing and proof of its validity. But the front lines of the fight had been laid not here. I realize this is not right.

The main front of struggle was in politics. With regard to the Western rulers of the homeland, for her release from the red pharaoh. Ratio was uncertain, or even negative. Here dreamer in me talking. Dreamer insisted that I joined the fight, went into politics. I did so. But did forked. Politics and then owned by me. And the parents I inherited a tendency to painful quest. Seek their own path.
But first, I plunged into the history of the Vlasov movement. I know its essence. What's all the same sources tell us to save, limited information? What they say about the leaders and the nucleus, institutions, and the proclamation Vlasovites? The answer I gave in the book of 1952.

. NUCLEUS

. The number of Soviet citizens who have Liberationists, unknown
. Under the watchful eye of Hitler, they joined Vlasovites, their main embodiment. Over there, in the direct predecessors of the military outcome, was born with its kernel. In 1943, personified the core of the Russian Liberation Movement and the Russian Liberation Army (ROA). In 1944, the liberation movement in Russia and the Committee of Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (ACPD). In each title is allocated word release, implying the liberation of the motherland. So I call all its members podsovetskih Liberationists.

When was the nucleus for his great work. Dvatri years, from 1943 to 45go. Means for its implementation was Hitler. Only then defeatism make an informed and ardent. That is the way he was represented by Nicholas. Defeatism was true nucleus. This truth required to make a choice, sought to use Hitler. According to Vlasov Prague Manifesto, this assistance <from Germany> is now the only real opportunity to organize an armed struggle against the Stalinist clique.

I picked up my big thing in 1948. When admitted to Harvard University near Boston. The oldest university in the country, the richest and most respected. He became a graduate student, doctoral student of Russian history. Found two more mentors from Russia.
Michael M. Karpovich (18881959) Harvard professor of Russian history. Was born in Tiflis. The origin of Russian, Polish and Georgian. Father Engineer. Young joined the Socialist-Revolutionaries. He served in the Provisional Government in Washington, but after October, settled in the U.S.. Abroad became active liberal. Extremely modest and generous, tolerant and resistant people.

Sir Isaiah Berlin. Born in 1909 in the family business in the Baltics. Loved the Russian culture. Complete their education in England. Professor, University of Oxford. Historian of Western European and Russian liberal philosophical and political currents. Preacher liberals. Supporter of the Zionists. Published six collections of his essays. Also exceptional man. Heart, brilliant, with a broad mind.

Under the guidance of my brilliant teachers, I focused on the freedom-loving tendencies of Russian social thought. Above all, the dream has attracted liberals, the dream of civil society. Where everyone has a lot of freedom, and together take precedence over state. But my big thing in the years post-graduate, doctorate became not a. From 1948 until 1952 he became a policy. Current policy at the top of the West. The fight in them for the future of the homeland. Means in this struggle, I chose Harvard.

TRUTH AND DECEPTION

Vlasov movement was real and unreal, truth and deception. Brown realm does give a certain proportion of self. Partly tolerated initiative of its military, officials. Tolerated by the way, to a much greater extent than the red realm. Tolerated and those military and government officials who stood up for Liberationists. But the Nazis did not tolerate their subjects of the former Soviet. They are not priemleli, restricted to the limit.

Rejected almost all attempts Liberationists to implement its goals. Suppress any independent action. Disrupted by the Nazi leaders, institutions of all levels, the fascist leaders of old-regime outcome. But Liberationists not backed. They decided to go to the existence of often humiliating, often illusory. We decided for the sake of the struggle against Stalin.

For confirmation of this view not far to seek. Take the Russian Liberation Army. Because ROA is also true, and deception. She also exist and not exist.
The German army has formed part of the national podsovetskie. They joined about a million prisoners of war. Vlasov was subordinated to the leadership of less than one tenth. With the rest of the Russian and Russified relationship was uncertain, unstable. Sometimes the kernel Vlasovites provided them with their chemto: military badges and signs, newspapers and advocates. But often there was no such connection. But all asserted one. Harped on a single ROA under the authority of the Vlasov. Germans asserted. Asserted Vlasov J. Hoffmann, History of Vlasov's Army. Freiburg., 1984 (not him. lang.), Paris., 1990 (in Russian. lang.).

The fact that it was a mixture of truth and deception, I already knew at the University. There, however, it was filed softer, more refined. But full of deception, I felt only now. And in preparing the mixture I have been involved with might and main. Keep in mind that for Vlasov I was not only the first chronicler. I became their accomplice, an open and hidden. Openly about their writing and speaking. Secretly helped, protected and supported, was an ally and collaborator. As a double confederate, telling the truth and lied.

In the book, I conceal his passion for Vlasov. And in conclusion overshadowed the most important for me. I always assumed the same thing for the refugees in the West and for the people of liberated Russia. Bearing in mind their independence from foreign powers, especially from Uncle Sam. In the last words of the book I only hinted at it. Hinted at the arrogance of the language adopted in the U.S.. Concluded, as a decent American scientist.
In peacetime and in war the American public and the U.S. government must take into account the importance and desirability of the Soviet confrontation. But it is equally important not to exaggerate or oversimplify the possibility of confrontation and the degree of its rejection of Soviet power.

This double game I was worried and frightened. Tomorrow's Professor, I still lost, tormented. But honestly, not only I. Hypocrite and powerful. Deceived Harvard. Deceived his associates in Washington, business (charity) supporters in New York. They represented a poll defectors, as an impartial study. In fact, the study determined the direction of the interests of the Government. What is the strength and weakness of the Soviet Union? How to break the Soviet people's propaganda? What purpose bomb, if war breaks out? Aloud the true purpose of the study superiors barely mentioned. It was of the purely scientific.

POLUSOTRUDNICHESTVO

Not formed a joint venture Liberationists and the Nazis. And what happened, did not satisfy either of those or other. This situation was preserved German sources of the war years. Confirms and many post-war memoirs, published in the West. It is particularly emphasized that the Vlasov fought for equality with brown kingdom.
Their own proclamation had a dual focus. On the one hand they say Nazi Germany in its loyalty. In 1942: National Socialist Germany of Adolf Hitler's aims to hold the New Germany without the Bolsheviks and capitalists. Vlasov's goals included almost the same: Create, in cooperation with Germany and other European nations, the New Russia without Bolsheviks and capitalists. And at the end of the war another statement confirmed that the alliance with Germany are fighting freedom-loving nations, eager to live their lives by their own historical and national development. Ibid placed an appeal to the forced Soviet workers Hitler: The compatriots, brothers and sisters who are in Europe! Your return home as equal citizens is possible only with the victory over Bolshevism. You millions. Depends on you to success in the fight. Remember that you are working now for a common cause, for the heroic liberation forces. Multiply their efforts and their feats of labor!

In the same vein vernopodannicheskom, their proclamation stated the opposite. But the implied equal cooperation. Smolensk Russian Committee statement (27 December 1942): Long live an honorable peace with Germany ... Long live the Russian people, an equal member of the family of the New Europe! Prague Manifesto Committee of Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (November 14, 1944): The Committee ... welcomes the assistance of Germany on terms not affecting the honor and independence of our homeland.

But the hope for equal cooperation with the tops of the Vlasov movement melted. Melted in a dozen leaders of the recent generals and colonels of the Red Army. The Germans were allowed only inequality, polusotrudnichestvo. For Liberationists it proved fatal. Has become hopeless disaster.

In the book, I summarized. Movement Liberationists tried to remain independent. Internally, it refused to become an accomplice of the Nazis. In general, he succeeded. A different picture is outside. Objectively, the leaders, intellectuals were the Germans propagandists. Rank and file soldiers and civilians have served as mercenaries. The whole fate of the movement, I added, was in collision, in variance motives of internal and external action.
I also failed to fully cooperate. Also happened only polusotrudnichestvo. At first, everything seemed in order. At Harvard, get along, make friends, prosper. I have received many benefits and privileges. Mastered the methods of scientific research, learned the craft of the historian. Admired the excellent university library. Loved the diligent work of researchers. Appreciated the charms of its penetration into the depths of thoughts comprehensive. Here is the street, so this house, so these MYYSLI that I love!

I managed to interest in the Harvard defector. I turned to the Russian Research Center of the University. Proposed to study the military outcome of the USSR. Conduct a general survey. Reasoned proposal exceptional access opportunities for the Soviet people. Harvard agreed. The company has supported the private charitable foundation Carnegie in New York. By the company joined the U.S. Air Force. As the Carnegie Foundation, they have allocated large funds. Air Force provided assistance and officials in Europe. Do not remain on the sidelines and the CIA. I have established links with the University defector, but he did not participate in the survey. Its conclusions I have already told.

At the same time in me was growing discontent. Harvard did not accept my big deal. Readmit. When country saw him only as under the tutelage of Uncle Sam. That could see him and the situation of defectors. I was led into a rage this tendency to enslave. I kept the form and position of the scientist. However rebelled. His rebellion conceal fraud. In general, fought quietly, secretly. And the West has not changed. At the summit in the old way. Because of this polusotrudnichestva did not get along at Harvard. Broke attachment.

JEWISH QUESTION

To what extent Liberationists perceived thinking of the Nazis? Send them to make concessions? Part of the answer lies, I decided, in their attitudes toward Jews. For Hitler Jewish question was a key. How treated him Vlasov? Since I am a Jew, the question has occupied me all the more. Did I deal with the enemies of my kind?

I asked in detail thirty emigrants and German officials. Asked about the history and essence of the Vlasov. Incidentally, and inquired about attitudes toward Jews. Examined the written sources. And do not forget inherited from the homeland: domestic hostility toward Jews probably widespread in the Soviet Union only relatively smaller than in Tsarist Russia.

Attacks were. Personal and official. In the book I gave not one example. Here mention the curriculum Vlasov, the subjects of their school promoters: the Jewish question in Germany, the Jews in Russia. Description steeped rejection. Language National Socialist, Black Hundreds, unprintable Stalin. But this exception. In general, Vlasov did not yield to passion brown. The statements are usually not isolated Jews. Do not reject a man. Do not blame around. No profanity. Did not take the essence chihlibo words or deeds to his or her Jewishness.

In Nicholas same conclusion. He repeated the story podsovetskogo Professor. He reproduced the response he Vlasov: Frankly, I do not share the anti-Semitic passions. This is German, not Russian position. We have always been tolerant of all peoples and this is our feature. Do not backtrack from that ... It is not in Russian (New Magazine. New York., 1948. T. 19).

In addition to the above, my book contained a second opinion. I expressed to him by the way, in foot-primechenii: ... the idea, frequently expressed in Vlasov's statements: These Jews never belonged to the family of the peoples of Russia.

. Now, forty-four years later, I first decided to confess: at 4050h years my attitude toward the Jews was like a repudiation Vlasovites
. I do not deny that I am a Jew. But the future, avoiding ties with Judaism, the Jewish past and present. Not want to be a Jew.

Secret desire to appear in the U.S.. Previously, he was not. In Berlin, I tasted brown hatred of Jews, but not so much. Moscow thirties resentment felt even less. Parents moved away from the orthodox ancestors. But love Jewish food, jokes, phrases. And the famous Jewish theater in Moscow. I had only a vague idea about the origin of family friends. It seemed not important, you are a Jew or not.

In the United States have turned out differently. In New York, in the army, at the University. I saw hostility to Jews. Dislike not violent, not pogrom everyday. A preparedness to me it was. After all, I felt like a Jew, much less than the Russian or German. Or even the American. Now I see that just as in me a desire to abdicate, withdraw from the eternal outcasts. I see that it was then circulated to all the Jews of his horror orphans, their fear of alienation and alien land. I was ashamed, I was tormented. But steel himself for a long time but could not.

Today I am a Jew rather intermingled. He began his fifteen years ago. But the community does not come in, do not perform rites. There is some special relationship with Israel. Although there is no joined the free-thinking seekers, dreamers, rebels. Absorbed them all. Imbibed their spirit, restless, restless Jews many centuries and countries. And then once again changed his name: the Anglo-Saxon, George added, early Russian Yuri, and Jewish new Uri (in English Jury equal spelling, and Uri: Uri).

. And just for the confession of Judaism, struck the question: Would I have made friends with Vlasovites without his abdication? If there were strong ties with the clan ancestors? I think yes
. I think that carried away the same way.

Inherited from HOMELAND

I saved a lot from home. Today I see it in enthusiasm Vlasovites. I see that you felt closer to them than the Americans, closer to barely familiar rebels than to the friend in the U.S.. To this day, I hid this feeling away. Hid all the tenacity of first love, the love of good at home. Without this attachment is not carried away by a defector.
Not less influenced horrors that regularly occur in the world. The horror of our barbarism. Savagery of modern humanity. Even today I am suffering, I grieve about the Holocaust and Hiroshima. Atrocities of Japan in World War II, Mao after the war. Of apartheid in South Africa, USA, Israel. Mourn another monster. Remember and grieve home cleaning Stalin Thirty-Seventh Year. Nevozvrashchentsy were thirty-seventh year. Rebelled against the evil in the home. No hate to the evil legacy also not be carried away.

Vlasov inherited from the country got a lot. Basically they were Soviet people. In 1952, I stressed the attachment to the red kingdom. Singled out, even such as attachment to the revolution: ... continuing influence of ideas and aspirations of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917: its humanistic idealism, her thirst for the fundamental and anti-capitalist transformation, equality and the paradox of freedom today, all ...
. Most of all, I identified attachment to faraonstvu
. To power the state, modern autocracy. Attachment that describes how inherited from the homeland, as the heritage of the kingdom of red: ... Soviet legacy makes every political system, but powerful, unfathomable to most Soviet citizens, including the opponents of Soviet power and those who really dream of freedom.

. Here I disagree with the opinion of Ekaterina Andreeva
. She attributes the influence Liberationists group outside Solidarists. This group is a child of old-regime outcome. It is also a child of the Nazis in southern Europe, autocracy, Italy, Spain, Portugal. By Andreeva, ... one of the Russian emigre organizations, NatsionalnoTrudovoy Soyuz (NTS), has had a significant impact on the Russian Liberation Movement. Andreev E. General Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement. Cambridge., 1987 (in English. lang.), London., 1990 (additional. ed. in Russian. lang.).

I do not agree. I think that Solidarists in motion Liberationists played the role of collateral,
secondary. In the NTS only brought in their own special movement of expression, such as national-labor system. Only reinforced with imperiousness, inherited from the homeland.

We know little about the inner, spiritual, that Vlasov had inherited from the homeland. We do not know what was the ratio in which good and evil, generosity and sense of low-lying. Perhaps human Dmitri Volkogonov. In his book about Stalin, he, however, does not share the view of the Red Pharaoh, who believed all prisoners of war as traitors. Insisted on the massacre of all of them. But he denounces Russian part of the German army.

. The last thing he sees in them believers Liberationists, . internally committed to the movement of people: In fact, . formation Vlasov absorbing not primarily ideological fighters, . and criminals, . Nationalist, . and weak, . weak-willed people, . captured only idea survive,
. Do not rule out that it was in POA compounds, not subordinate to Vlasov. Do not rule out that this was also in a few parts, directly subordinate to him. I think that both here and there we would find a lot of self-seekers, caring only about their welfare. After ten million Soviet citizens, soldiers and civilians, were in the hands of the Germans. And only half of them survived the war.

Here, in my opinion, the essence of the Liberation Movement 194,345 years. Here and defeatism, and deception. Here and polusotrudnichestvo, and inherited from the homeland. And a lot of self-seekers. However, that has touched the hearts neshkurnikov? What tied to the cause of ordinary people, ordinary? What fascinated their souls, even if questionable means? I think that touched them, tied dream. In weary hour inhumane testing movement has promised a way out of stalemate. Promised to clothe with flesh passionate dream. Dream of a new Russia.

In this difficult hour the movement incarnated his head, Andrei Andreyevich Vlasov (19001946). Farmer's son, the boatman from the Nizhny Novgorod. Officer of the Red Army since the Civil War. During the Great War became a lieutenant general, one of the generals who defended Moscow. Vlasov was taken prisoner. Led the. He began his idol, a person of his dreams.

Vlasov proclaimed the Third Way. The new Russia will eliminate the Bolsheviks and capitalists. In their place will be the welfare. Full financial contentment. The full spiritual satisfaction.

Vlasov promised statehood. Promised ... the path to the power of the nation and the state ... Nationalism is the highest recognition of the nation's social value and the highest social education ... Our nationalism derives not only from blood and biological senses, but, more importantly, from the minds of the generality of our interests ... even of different nationalities ...
In the new Russia Vlasovites promised unity, unity, unity. ... strengthening the nation on the principle ... unification, unity and solidarity. In union power ... Private interests are subject to the general.

This I see them a dream of a new life, new Russia. Prosperity and statehood and the community. Or shorter unity and power of the homeland. Emphasis on the word of faith preacher Vlasov: Captain Galkin Dmitriy. The ideological foundations of the Liberation Movement of peoples of Russia Notebook promoter. Dabendorf: Conroy., 1945. January.

Unity and power of the motherland! Promise, the justification of the insurgent General. But the promise, the justification of Generalissimo. At home, the memory of the victory in the war is still accompanied by the generalissimo, with its unity and power. Accompanied by a half century later.
Alexander Yakovlev, a philosopher and social activist, recently turned to this phenomenon. Stressed shock from the victory in World War II. Until now, many families are bleeding wounds of the Second World. Woe inescapable. The severity of these feelings is natural, sacred memory of the dead. It is unclear Other. Why the legitimate feelings of grief and joy interfere ask a simple question: are people not be won without the dictatorship, . which destroyed the top of the professional army before the war? And then he continued: Why did Hitler's army, . advancing, . lost five million, . and we, . fighting on its territory, . more than thirty million? (AN,
. Yakovlev. Bitter cup. Yaroslavl., 1994).
Yuri Afanasyev in that earlier book (The War 19391945) concluded: "Without serious reflection on this subject, we can not find peace in Russia, and Russia in the world.

Estrangement and Vlasov, and I am disappointed. Disappointed and lost faith in the media for our big things. And they are, and I had to go through the same output. Output in sustainable for themselves. In confess their own dreams and dream. They went to the dream of a society of unity and strength. Chronicler of the dream of civil society. In imagination, and I wish it to your standards. There, in the land of promise everything will be fine! Everything! Everything!

NOT together with any

Here, amongst you: houses, money, smokes,
Dames, Dumas,
Not together with any of you, do not bunching with you ...

Marina. Emigrant, 1923

I begin with the recognition. I have a different attitude toward Vlasovite years of war and postwar. In Liberationists, under Hitler, admired one revolt against Stalin. They took me as a historian. A defector to feel much more. They also appreciated revolt. But more deeply moved chtoto. Excited their postwar fate, touched their indomitable spirit. With them I had gone directly. Attached to them, helped in every way. Now tell them. On the left in the West, about not returning to their homeland.

When the war ended in Europe, have Vlasovites ruined everything. Disappeared Liberation Movement against Stalin, the embodiment of their main. Disappeared, its leaders, agencies, the proclamation. Nevozvrashchentsy took place encircled and Liberationists. A place of the rulers of red and brown became the ruler of white.

Military outcome made it Nevozvrashchentsy. Because only they have these emigrants. Went to live abroad for a long time and deliberately.

Nevozvrashchentsy only a remnant of the recent Liberationists, only a remnant of early encircled stolen in Germany and the Soviet people. On the white West survived them quite a bit. After the Nazi Holocaust of Jews and Gentiles was not the end. There was another massacre. New massacre fell on non-Jewish immigrants from the USSR. This time it waged not fascists. Allies waged a war against fascists. For the end of the war and immediately after the victory.

U.S. and Britain gave the Soviet Union two million Soviet citizens. They got to the free world with the fall of brown kingdom. Anglo-Saxons gave them to the Soviet authorities condemned the brutal massacre in the Gulag. Issued secretly, violently, relentlessly. Another three million Soviet authorities returned themselves. At the same punishment.

Nevozvrashchentsy experienced triple misfortune. By the end of the war, a failed marriage of convenience with Hitler. Then the fear of refoulement. After pressure from the U.S. to force them to serve in the Cold War. In other words: first unwitting mercenaries of Hitler, then driven in a free world, then the alleged servants of Uncle Sam.

Here tutti Uncle Sam has acted as the Pharaoh. Mighty, the cruel king. Although the king of pure white, bourgeois. But still, Pharaoh. Refoulement defectors appalled me, and infuriate. I took it as another sign of our barbarism, savagery the world of our time. Felt as yet another monster, along with the thirty-seventh year, the Holocaust and apartheid, along with the atrocities of Hiroshima and Japan and Mao. Vinyl and myself for this monster, for the fate of the survivors.

Decade after the war even more devastated defectors. Scared. Embittered. Sources per. Source of communication with the spirit of the homeland and the spirit of the universal. If old-outcome partly blossomed in the West, the outcome of the military heyday did not work. There was no golden age.
I have spoken with defector in Munich. I remember their extreme uncertainty, confusion. The uncertainty of everyday expectations woes. From the lack of food for the mind and soul. From lack of food and clothing. Without money and shelter, nearly all of them were detained in camps of the United Nations, in ordinary-looking camps for displaced persons. Lived with false papers. Every time went to deception to avoid refoulement.

Nevozvrashchentsy lost in the free world. Lost in alien customs, unfamiliar languages. Lost, not having skills in exile. In strife, mutual intolerance, denunciations. Lived, as in tetanus, from accusations of scouts and officials. American, German, Soviet. You brown offender! Are you red spy! Or explicit fascist, or communist, or maybe just a scum, worthless, no one desired.

Nevertheless, in Munich, made an attempt to overcome isolation, to get rid of emptiness, loneliness. She stirred, grabbed me. This attempt took the decapitated remains of the nucleus of the Liberation Movement of the war years. They created the League of Struggle. Union struggle for the liberation of the peoples of Russia. SBONR.

And SBONR became the new kernel. The core of the political community of postwar Vlasovites. Union fight has turned himself into a political party under the banner of Dream Vlasov. Embodied in the largest party defectors. And perhaps the whole of Russia abroad. Thousand members. The focus SBONR placed underground struggle. The struggle against Stalin at home. Members SBONR sought meetings with Soviet citizens abroad. Sometimes penetrate the Soviet. Spread appeal. Interviewing. We tried to recruit new members, supporters.

Without revealing their intentions, SBONR created in Munich Russian library. Subsequently, its founder, Nikolai Troitsky, writes in his memoirs that the library should become a center of moral support ... They spent reading, meetings, performances, celebrated holidays. Then SBONR created something more substantial, in the same way and there in Munich. Created major scientific institution Institute for the Study of History and Culture of the USSR.

The leaders were SBONR people are not eminent. Natives heartland, from the families of ordinary mortals. Almost all Russian, Russified Ukrainians and Belarusians, Orthodox. And too busy with his uniform. Almost all were from the technical intelligentsia, from close to her military. Or going to join her after graduation. For the most part people are full, without internal duality or diversity. Most of the young, sometimes even violent.

I met with a dozen heads SBONR. Helped them to communicate with the West, with government officials, publishers, academics. Helped in the establishment of the Institute.

Institute had not forgotten my participation. The report of the first five years of the Institute of non-staff, I just mentioned: It should be noted that very closely involved in the organization took the Institute now teaches in <Brandayzskom> University Professor. J. Fisher. A sociologist gave some unflattering assessment of the Institute of Early. In his work (C. T. OKonnell. Munich Institute for the Study of the USSR. The origin and social composition.
Pittsburgh., 1990) is given one of the evidences, which I called the spiritual father of this institution. Here is the street, so this house, so this POOMOSCH that I love!

To business defectors, I drew parents. Mother helped them a lot. In Munich Markush Bertha Yakovlevna Fisher (18881977) was to represent IRC, International Rescue Committee. Throughout the world, this private organization assisted refugees from communism. Mother persuaded the Committee to take them. His father, Louis Fisher (18961970), published a book of their stories about the Soviet Union: Thirteen fugitives. New York City., 1949.

Activities of the Union united struggle of people belonging to Vlasovite when the Germans. Post-war community existed not long. Let shestsem. There was a split in the leadership of the Union, among the members and sympathizers. The split on the issue is not new. How to preserve the independence? In no way cooperate with the hard Pharaoh? In no way to live and fight for his money? During the war, Hitler was a tool, and the question was about him. Now got to Uncle Sam.

In Munich, I was impressed by three defector not fully associated themselves with white Pharaoh. I'll tell you about each.

LEADER

From the beginning of one and the same man led SBONR and the Institute. He was chairman of the governing council of the Union struggle for the liberation of the peoples of Russia. He was director of the Institute for the Study of History and Culture of the USSR.

Nikolai Troitsky. Russian. Born in 1903 in a remote province of Simbirsk. Parents of a farmer and clergyman. After graduation he worked as a civil engineer, architect. As a non-party, held responsible positions in Moscow in the design and research institutions. Before his arrest in 1937 he was Deputy Scientific Secretary of the Academy of Architecture of the USSR. Sat in a Moscow prison. Then, before the war he worked as a writer of children's magazines and pop (from a brief autobiography, 1949).

He fought as a private in the Red Army. Passed the German POW camp. Entry into Liberation Movement. He received the rank of Junior Sergeant. He became one of the leading promoters. Was close to the Vlasov. Took part in the Prague Manifesto. After the war, the strife of emigrants to the Prague manifesto advocated the idea of the February Revolution. Defended and installation of the Western Social-Democrats.

In Munich, he impressed me as a born leader. Huge performance. Concentration. Decisiveness. Agility. Fighter by nature. Warrior with bated holy anger. He was tall and thin as a rail. Usually rather dry-boned and closed. Often, persistent and demanding. Sometimes sharp. (Highlighted words I took from his stories).
Trinity Institute has set two goals. One goal of the corporation free of scientists and specialists, emigrants from the Soviet Union ... (on the text of the said report on the work of the Institute). The purpose of the other to expose the red pharaoh, open the eyes of the West, to dispel the fog of ignorance about the red white kingdom.

In fact, not been achieved neither the one nor the other. The Institute is hardly influenced the Free World. And complete independence has never been achieved. Initially, however, was attended by no little independence. But the opposite has occurred. Central exploratory drilling management united states immediately intervened in the affairs of the Institute. First, he received little money. Gradually increasing benefits. Along with this growing and demands.

Trinity did not go to the unconditional cooperation. Went only to polusotrudnichestvo. Defending the freedom and independence of members from representatives of the CIA. Strong-willed and imperious, he frequently clashed with American officials.

Representatives of the CIA at the Institute valued him as a leader. But he seemed to them a sharp, energetic, uncompromising. Tolerated it necessary. In the end, their patience exhausted. Five years later he was asked to leave the post of Director. After the resignation of Trinity sent an open letter to the general meeting of the Institute. In particular, he wrote: Intervention Sponsor American Committee ... led to a breach of the principles as well as research and internal organization of the purely academic, institutions.
The end of the head coincided at the Institute and SBONR. In both places the question of independence was fatal. Most of the core defectors went to hire, obeyed the white Pharaoh. Leader did not agree. He came out of SBONR, left the Institute.

CONNOISSEUR

Another significant figure was a thinker and writer, a connoisseur of the USSR, Abdurahman Genasovich Avtorhanov. Chechen. In 1908, he was born in the Terek Region of Russia, a village near Grozny. Father a carpenter.

Historian by training. A graduate of the famous Moscow Institute of Red Professors. Particular attention is paid in Russian history. Party workers in Moscow and Chechnya. Five years spent in Soviet prisons. Not to fight, crossed the front line, as a civilian. Served in the eastern department of propaganda and the German Army. Participated in the three liberation movements: the North Caucasus, Muslim, Russia. In the first place still stands the case of Chechnya, the peoples of the North Caucasus.

After the war, defended his doctoral thesis in Germany. He received a doctorate in political science. Become a major expert on Soviet policy. Posted by a number of books translated into many languages. Avtorhanov was the exception among defectors. He proved himself a writer-educated, well-read, free-thinking. Only he, in my opinion, stood on a global level.

In the realm of Pharaoh, he caught on a white. Caught on much better than Trinity. For almost three decades, maintained a professorship. He taught at the School of intelligence officers of the American army near Munich. But white pharaoh even Avtorhanov not completely see eye to eye. Often resented harassment at work and in life.

Here is one example, taken from the memoirs of the mid-50s Avtorhanova years. As he says, he was waiting for a new cause for indignation: I was told that the Americans have such a wonderful machine, which accurately determines whether the defendant speaks a lie ... polygraph. Be tested on this machine, he agreed only after one year. But with the machine it did not work. Then he told his boss: If my work in this school depends on my consent to the continuation of the lie-detector test, he can dismiss me now (AG Avtorhanov. Memoirs. Frankfurt., 1983).

Preacher

Senior defender and distributor of faith Dmitry Vlasov Dem'yanovich Padun (19101993). Russian. He grew up in a Cossack village in the Kuban Krasnodar Territory in the current. Parents peasants. Continued teaching. Non. In the USSR, not sitting.

In war he was captured. He taught school in Vlasov promoters in the town Dabendorf near Berlin. There he wrote his first work signed KapitanGalkin. I've already said. Here we will discuss other. (The one and another I found in the Trinity Foundation in the State Archive of Russia).

Second job Padun written, already becoming a defector. She married the same signature in the journal Vlasov Party: Captain Galkin Dmitriy. Ideological doctrine of the Liberation Movement. Fight. Munich: SBONR., 1949. Iyuniyul.

Revision worldview 194,345 years did not happen. Munich work differed little from dabendorfskogo. The new work reflects the old dream. Again, imperious order in the liberated homeland. Again, the primacy of prosperity, statehood, community. Padun emphasized the continuing truths of the war years.

. ... should have been <now> to develop a broad ideological doctrine, in which each member of the Liberation Movement of peoples of Russia <during the war> was able to see their views as they were and what happened ..
. In short, it was necessary to recreate the spiritual essence of the Movement for what it was ...

Something the preacher added. Hinted at a rapprochement with the free world, with Uncle Sam. After the war, Vlasov's softened attitude toward capitalism. Even given him in his zamyshleniyah liberated Russia. Reacted positively to some state control of capitalism. It is hard to tell how people of the future will call this formation, but its content (the presence of the commanding heights of the economy in the hands of the whole nation, not to


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  • Anonymous for FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)
  • George Fisher ': I was floundering in its mercury is often a feeling, feelings, actions. My roller coaster I threw it up and down. That to delight the ups, the downs to the gloom. But most of all floundering in its plurality - in Russian, a German Jew, an American general, . in Marx-Roosevelt-Gandhi-Inanna, . Wanderer in-dreamer-thinker and a rebel orphan, . politics, nature-spirit-books. In this confusion, . in the darkness of my descent into the underworld helped glimpses from the surface, . outside,
    . Glimmerings of light from around the world. Everywhere I found out myself: '
  • Richard Pipes for FISHER Yuri Zhdordzh (George Fisher)
  • These remarks are not rational. I knew Fischer at Harvard and am surprised that he would write such incoherent remarks about himself and the people he knew. Most depressing.
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