SHKARENKOV Leonid Konstantinovich( Scientific)
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Biography SHKARENKOV Leonid Konstantinovich
Today, when the national historical science particularly in need of fundamental scientists, nekonyunkturnogo way of thinking, of life went out just such a man. June 14, 1999, at 78 year of age, died of a heart attack Leonid Konstantinovich Shkarenkov, doctor of historical sciences, senior researcher INION, chief editor of "Russia and the modern world".
We left a remarkable man, combining inexhaustible creative energy with his usual one charm, sparkling humor, great joie de vivre that podetski clear perception of the world.
L.K. Shkarenkov lived a long, chest, bright life, its share dropped all the joys and sorrows of doubling generation. He was born in Moscow in 1921, in 1939. graduated from high school, and already autumn was drafted into the Red Army. In June 1940. participated in a forced march through the Western Belarus in Vilnius (Vilna). The Red Army entered the Baltic, and from the West at this time to the Lithuanian border, German troops were moved up. Impending war, which nineteen Leonid Shkarenkov, commander of the department 84-th Infantry Division, met away from home. Not soon he would return to their homes. Of the 13 boys graduating from the tenth grade, where he studied at the front were killed 8. In his autobiography, Leonid Konstantinovich wrote about this period is extremely sparingly: "was at the front ... joined the party ... demobilized ".
Half a century after the war, he would vote on "the soldiers and the war in more detail. Remembering the early days of the war and the chaotic retreat of the Red Army, he said: "In this way everything is mixed up ... I have lost all their possessions: his coat was burned, backpack, helmet and gas mask dropped. The only thing I can not be separated - is its SVT (Tokarev semi-automatic rifle) "(Essay" The memory of the war, "the magazine" Russia and the Modern World ", 1995, 2). Adding to it: Russia has not lost a soldier Leonid Shkarenkov military honor, and he is not separated from the idea of ultimate victory over the enemy. Three months 84 Division waged a stubborn defensive fighting, delaying the enemy on different lines. In these first battles many of his comrades were killed, wounded, caught up in. Read his biography - a biography of the war itself.
Participated in the battles for Stalingrad, Kursk, Belgorod, under ...
He was twice wounded, but remained in the army in. L.K. Shkarenkov certified as "a courageous officer.
In the essay "Memory and War" he gave its own analysis of our victories and defeats, told of meetings with the major warlords - AI. Eremenko, KK. Rokossovsky, GK. Zhukov. L.K. Shkarenkov was awarded government awards - the Order of the Patriotic War, 1 st degree and "Red Star", with six medals, including "For Military Merit" and "For the Defense of Stalingrad.
Guard Captain L.K. Shkarenkov discharged only in September 1946, having served in the Army 7 years.
In 1947, Mr.. he joined the history faculty of Moscow State University and since then all his life devoted himself to history as a profession, a creative vocation path of execution of civil and patriotic duty
. He graduated from the graduate, . master's thesis, . was recruited to the editor of the journal "History of the USSR" (first was head of the department of history of the Soviet period, . then the executive secretary of the editorial board), . and then worked in Sotsekgiz "- publisher" idea "managing editor of the literature on the history of the USSR, . in "Questions of History" deputy editor,
In 1967. L.K. Shkarenkov was sent to Prague, in the Editor of "Problems of Peace and Socialism". All that he saw there, it was highly unusual. Abolition of censorship, . break free media, . the emergence of new political parties, . open discussion and criticism of the Soviet system in various classrooms, . Numerous meetings and demonstrations, . especially the May Day demonstration, . which involved hundreds of, . Thousands of people ..,
In the essay "On the Prague Spring," published in 2 magazine "Russia and the Modern World" in 1998, he tried to analyze the causes of socio-political crisis in Czechoslovakia of the time. "With all the complexity of the situation - he wrote - I have even thought was that the crisis between the CPSU and the CPC should be solved through military means. Rather, perhaps, did not want to think about it ". But on the night of August 21, 1968 Warsaw Pact troops entered Czechoslovakia. L.K. Shkarenkov with a small group of employees of the magazine Problems of Peace and Socialism remained in Prague. He wanted to see and comprehend all, . what happened: the tanks on the streets, . Soviet soldiers, . surrounded by the inhabitants of Prague, . signs and posters on the walls, . Group Czech youth with tricolor flags, . sometimes young soldiers, . postponed machines and played a football with Czech boys,
At the Prague Spring had its heroes and martyrs, romance and the traitors. But "one can not judge an era by today's standards" - will write later L.K. Shkarenkov and make a clear conclusion: the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 dealt a fatal blow - and moral, and political - to the prestige of our country, for the system of relations that have been called "the socialist community" ... The Prague Spring was a great illusion, but no such illusions of mankind would have no past, no future ".
From Prague L.K. Shkarenkov brought suitcases of extracts from the Czech archives, where he worked every spare minute. For many years he studied the history of White Russian emigres, the collapse of foreign counter-revolution, its political currents. The certain outcome of years of research was the book "The Agony of white emigration, which was published in 1981. Two years later L.K. Shkarenkov defended his doctoral dissertation on "The White emigration: the evolution and collapse. 1917-1945 gg. ".
Working on a book and dissertation, he managed to raise a huge array of documents, determined in large measure not yet touched by hand of the historian. He looked through thousands of pages of correspondence, . diaries, . memories, . all kinds of records of such figures, . as Wrangel, . Denikin, . Kutepov, . Miller, . Burtsev, . Savinkov, . Tchaikovsky, . Miliukov, . Struve, . Chernov, . examined the minutes of meetings, . Help, . Reports, . summary, . reports, . orders etc.,
. Only a diary and record of documents that led the General Wrangel AA. von Lampe for more than 20 years, represent more than 30 thousand. sheets.
Many reviews of the book L.K. Shkarenkova "Agony of white emigration" noted that it was the first of our historians study the life and work of post-revolutionary emigration, the study is very relevant and instructive. And although the genre of the book is a scientific treatise, it was met with interest the broad readership. Copies of the book sold like lightning, it was impossible to buy. "Your book, then read like hot cakes - wrote LK Shkarenkovu GG Permyakov from Khabarovsk. - I got it only at night. Do not tell me where you can buy, whether it will be reissued. I zakonspektiroval it, but there was little time ". No one issue has stood the "agony", printed it, and abroad (in Poland, Bulgaria).
Total reflection on the fate of Russian emigrants who arrived at by the author and to whom he fired for his readers, well expressed in the title of the book reviews in the magazine Star: "Without Russia - it is impossible".
Nearly thirty years of employment history L.K. Shkarenkova related INION - Institute for Scientific Information on Social Sciences. Here he was able to more fully and effectively combine the talent of a researcher and organizer of science. As head of the department of the socialist countries, . Leonid Konstantinovich guided primarily by the only true pulse, . which he received from contact with the Prague Spring - the desire to see in the life of, . who then were called fraternal, . shoots update, . overcome the adverse standards and restrictions, . manifestations-tion of national specificity,
. Thus was born a series of publications, which gave the reader an idea - despite the official canon - the substantial differentiation of economic, social and cultural practices of the socialist countries of Eastern Europe.
The last years of his life LK Shkarenkov was chief editor of the magazine "Russia and the modern world". The magazine appeared in public, press freedom and censorship. For 5 years of its existence came 25 rooms, they published more than 500 different materials - articles, reports, reviews, interviews. Selflessly, enthusiastically L.K. Shkarenkov led magazine, writing articles himself, found the most interesting authors interviewed dozens of very famous people. He never imposed his views to other. Each author had a right to their opinion, their assessment of certain events and phenomena "- and the line he held strictly. The magazine "Russia and the Modern World" and read in the capital, and in a distant province, and not only in our country. He received the Library of Congress, the UN library, the library 15 American universities, many universities in other countries. The magazine became a monument to its creator. Is symbolic: the last lines written by Leonid Konstantinovich, were the first lines of the outline of his report, which he intended to speak in December 1999. on the occasion of the release of 25-th anniversary issue of the journal. These lines continue to live ...
The management and staff INION, colleagues and friends
A WORD ABOUT Leonid Konstantinovich SHKARENKOVE
Gone from the life of a famous historian, a remarkable man Leonid Konstantinovich Shkarenkov. In mid-June I went on a business trip and learned about the loss suffered by the collective INION much later - in August with. g. This news struck a blow. Immediately it was hard to believe what happened, to realize the size of the loss. More than a quarter century - 27 years - we worked together in INION. Formation and development of the Institute took place with the active participation of Leonid Konstantinovich. He was one of those key employees, which I, as a director, has relied in establishing the system informa-tion of publications in the field of social sciences and humanities. Multifaceted experience Leonid Konstantinovich in science journalism and publishing and activities has been extremely useful. In this paper, there is everyone, including the unpleasant. Director to make decisions that may affect the interests of individual-governmental employees. In such situations, I have repeatedly consulted with Leonid Konstantinovich and always found understanding. His opinion was listened for the whole team. Me and Leonid Konstantinovich intimate deal, including the famous interlocking dates and events autobiographical nature: we were born in 1921, both in 1936. joined the Young Communist League, in 1939. completed the ten-year and were called up for active military service in the Red Army, in 1940. I participated in the liberation campaign of the Red Army in Bessarabia, and Leonid Konstantinovich was in the army entered the Baltics; military involvement in WWII, we had already June 22, 1941; in 1942. We joined the party, both in spite of the wounds were still alive, but most guys who were enrolled in 1939, died - because they assumed the first blow of the fascist troops invaded our country.
The Institute Leonid Konstantinovich many years headed the department of the socialist countries, is considered one of. He was always very demanding of himself and department staff, being proactive in the work of our early obsheinstitugskoe value. Work with Leonid Konstantinovich was nice, but not always easy - he was very persistent when it comes to the interests of the department. Persistence of it was soft and at the same time sufficiently strong. To promise something to him (to raise wages employee, . convert someone to a higher position, . reward, . To expedite the publication, etc.) and do not fulfill the promise was not possible: in case of delay, . Leonid Konstantinovich came with a smile, . with a joke and did not hesitate to remind,
. Knowing this, I avoided such situations. However, not only with him. More knowledge, liberality Leonid Konstantinovich attracted many - it was an interesting, thoughtful conversationalist. I have often discussed with him the most controversial issues related to political and economic situation in the country and in the period of Gorbachev's perestroika and after coming to power of Boris Yeltsin. His judgments and estimates have always been convincing. Leonid Konstantinovich enjoyed unchallenged authority in the collective of the Institute. He was respected and loved him believed. On the recommendation of the team on four occasions he was elected a deputy of the Sevastopol District Council of People's Deputies, was chairman of the Standing Committee of the Board District Council for Cultural Affairs. Most employment in the Institute did not prevent him to make a significant contribution to the cultural life of the area.
Historical works L.K. Shkarenkova, its contribution to the outreach activities were widely known to the scientific community, especially to historians major scientific centers in the country. It can rightly be called the biggest stories of white emigration, the researcher. Documentary apparatus of his work in this area, drawn in many other archives, said the depth of penetration of the historian to study the essence of the problem. The last years of his life Leonid Konstantinovich dedicated magazine "Russia and the Modern World". He initiated the creation of the magazine and its editor in chief of the permanent.
Under 1992. was not easy to begin publication of a new scientific journal, bring it to the attention of readers. Leonid Konstantinovich managed to do. Tom helped his inexhaustible energy, knowledge of the scientific needs of readers, the ability to find interesting authors, extensive contacts in academic circles and among public figures. Magazine "Russia and the modern world" every year becoming more popular. Remembering Leonid Konstantinovich, it is impossible not to mention its contribution to the development of international contacts of the Institute. He has participated in many scientific conferences, assisted by the information centers of Vietnam, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, etc.. Countries. Went to a scientific mission to the United States. Often, we participated together abroad in various scientific and information activities. I well remember our trip to Czechoslovakia in 1976. In his spare time meeting a lot of walking around Prague.
Leonid Konstantinovich nearly three years in the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism "and knew the city owned the Czech language. He has told me about the Prague Spring, to invade the countries of the Warsaw Pact in 1968. His assessment of those events were very risky-tion, but it was hard not to agree with his arguments and conclusions. I remember one episode, which allowed me to make fun of Leonid Konstantinovich. During one of his walks, he proposed to go to the familiar cellar-pub to drink beer and dine. Of course, I readily agreed. They sat at a table, ordered shpikachki and asked to bring a big mug of beer.
It was then, and there was almost unbelievable - in a tavern served only wine. Leonid Konstantinovich was very embarrassed, I laughed. We decided to still remain. Coming out of the cellar, we have left no intention to drink beer, and soon came upon a pub called "The Golden Tiger. Leonid Konstantinovich knew her. We went to the pub and were surprised: the big hall was packed, seats available around the high table was not that said about the great popularity of restaurant. We are somewhat confused, but, looking around, noticed the door to another room. There, visitors were sitting at the tables and waiters served them. We entered, but the picture was the same: free places was. We are loud enough expressed their regret, and this has helped: for one-him of the tables were our fellow citizens, who, on hearing the Russian language, invited us to join them. It turned out that the Soviet assemblers, 12 who studied in Prague, Czech experience of laying glass pipes. Boys and their Czech colleagues were very pleasant and hospitable. The beer was excellent. We were told that data Nye beer is widely known. The building in which it is located, belongs to the XIV century. The cellar was covered with moss, where a special microclimate. In the beer brought large barrels with a young beer, here in the basement, it matures. This is the secret of beer which we drank with great pleasure. Subsequently, I repeatedly visited Prague and was reminded of that night, but most of "The Golden Tiger" was not.
After retiring as director INION my contacts with Leonid Konstantinovich, educa-governmental, not stopped. We often met and exchanged a few words or news in the director's hall, and sometimes he would come to my new office and shared his success in preparing the next issue of the journal. Always smiling, sometimes made fun of themselves or of someone from the general knowledge rhea. It seemed that our meetings will not end - and the heavier the loss.
Academician VA. Vinogradov, adviser RAS man of broad views
Profession historian like no other demands - and at the same time contributes to - the development of multilateralism, the multifaceted personality. History, as a rule, differs keen interest to many - sometimes very different topics and issues, and thereby contributes to the formation of character. I do not like historians - including those who are first-class specialists in their field - which are closed in a relatively narrow area, knows only that, but directly adjacent to their issues. Historian is close to the journalist. However, fellow journalists are not intended to dig as deep as it is obliged to do historians (I hope that fellow competitors will not be offended - this is not a reproach, but a statement of particular professions). I like the historians, . that, . having primary, . favorite (sometimes lifelong) theme, . be carried away by other issues, . expand their scientific horizons, . Let stand bold enough convincing hypothesis, . serve with fresh original, . albeit poorly substantiated ideas, suggestions, . concepts,
. Otherwise, our lively, exciting science would be dry, listless, not attracted tens of thousands of professionals and millions of readers and admirers.
Leonid Konstantinovich Shkarenkov was a historian from God and enthusiastic and engaging. Perhaps that's why he was a scholar of wide profile, a man with a huge creative potential. Perhaps not by chance that it combines the features and journalist, historian and scholar.
The versatility of interests, broad-mindedness, greed, everything new, fresh and ready to support a useful endeavor, throw begun, promising it to do something unexpected. He set aside his pen, to go on promising curious report, meet with a man who came from afar. He was sociable in the highest sense of the word - easy to meet and share all kinds of people because they were interested in him, and he - they. By L.K. how can no longer fit the word E. Yevtushenko: "I'm greedy people and greedy all lyutey".
Fate led L.K. This predestination. In his biography mingled, interwoven scientific work and the work of journalists. "Questions of history "...," History of the USSR "..., "Problems of Peace and Socialism "..., INION ... He conceived and literally reared magazine "Russia and the modern world". Autumn 1992. L.K. I participated in the 2 nd Congress of Russian compatriots in Leningrad. We were housed in one hotel room. Almost the first words with which L.K. appealed to me when we crossed the threshold, were: "How good that we are in the same room. I just wanted to record your interview for our magazine ". - What magazine? - I was taken aback. - We have created a new magazine. INION will publish, I do "kind Glavred. Unless pereduma-tion, of course - patiently explained IK. - Voice recorder with me. Let's start. - Yes I'm still not at hand sang to wash off the road. - Do not worry, be patient - pressed L.K. with her: epodrazhaemym humor, hinting at the famous anecdote about the Czech yte hands Masaryk visiting Lady Klayvden. All the days that followed, LK, as soon as we found ourselves together, got a voice recorder, and continued to record. It is easy to guess that the magazine came out with a printed interview.
L.K. able to bring the matter to the end! The main scientific problem L.K. a history of Russian emigration. His undoubted merit was that he was able to locate and enter into the scientific circulation many were in different places - in the USSR and abroad - are valuable documents and materials. Emigration and its fate, he wrote his major monograph, published in 1981. and then not to republish. The book includes a very important, crucial documentary. In this regard, the book value of the everlasting arms. The book deals with issues that do not cease to worry about Russia's public. Estimates given in the monograph, uncompromising, they reflect those evaluations, which existed in Soviet public opinion. As a result of the revolution and civil war in Russia has seen unprecedented scale division.
The civil war has led to many millions of victims. Toughening strife-ing parties, it was endless. Up to two million people fled the country. Between immigrants and the victorious Soviet authorities continued a relentless struggle - political, ideological, underground, subversive. Reading all that writing all the Soviet newspapers relating to emigration and emigrant - about Soviet Russia, one can only marvel inflame the hatred, anger, rage, which gave off the sheet of newspaper. This was understandable, explicable.
Still not healed the trenches fighting the civil war, not cooled machine guns, were still fresh graves of loved ones, has not disappeared revenge and revenge. Years passed, and intertsionnaya strength of the political struggle has continued to roll the waves of hostility and misunderstanding. The Second World War gave rise to considerable differences in the environment of emigration, but the unfolding Cold War flung new bundles of firewood in neugasshie fires. In this situation, LK, of course, been criticized political positions and actions of the majority of emigre organizations. He did not write to order. He sincerely and with conviction, criticized those who remained irreconcilable enemies of the country whose national L.K. was, the enemies of order, which L.K. People believed in a fair, despite the many shortcomings and omissions ..