Vladimir Zworykin Kozmich( Scientific)
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Biography Vladimir Zworykin Kozmich
Born July 30, 1889, Mr.. G. Murom, Vladimir Province. Father - A. Kozma, merchant 1st guild parahodovladelets and banker, a respected man in his hometown. Mother - from a wealthy bourgeois family.
In the years of training in Murom Real School, W. was often in the service of his father, gazed at the work of his associates and subordinates. Especially occupied the attention of the boy all that was associated with a booming then electrical engineering, - he repeatedly undertook to repair the equipment.
Entering W. in 1906. Petersburg University, and then - go to the Institute of Technology opened for him the possibility of tea. Professor Boris Rosing, fascinated by experiments transfer Rain sensor images at a distance, noticed talanlivogo student and invited him in 1910. work in his lab. Vpoledstvie W, admitted that this cooperation finally forced him to admit "shortcomings of mechanical television and necessity of the use of electronic systems".
In 1912, Mr.. Z. graduated with honors and received the right to continue his education in Paris "College de Franse", led by venerable physicist P. Langevin.
First World War broke all further plans. Return to Russia and the call in the army, in the communications troops, led W. in the Belarusian city of Grodno. But he greeted the February revolution in Petrograd, where he served and worked in the officers' radioshkole.
Revolution and the policy of the Provisional Government were certainly guilty of the one formed later than the notion of "tragedy of the Russian officers". And in 1917, Mr.. Z. fully felt it myself - a revolutionary tribunal judge him for what he allegedly "ridiculing" of the soldier, making for a long time to pronounce the last digit in the "hole" (t. e. the microphone).
Careless experimenter was eventually acquitted, but he chose then to return to active duty.
W. continued his service in the town near Kiev Brovary. Here, among the lower ranks, he enjoyed great prestige, speaking at rallies, he was elected deputy of the military unit. However, once on a train returning from a short trip, he saw the disarming and arrest of the officers in the next echelon. Instantly cured decision prompted him to jump on the train, derailed ...
For some time, hiding straps, W. lived in Moscow. But it no longer had to think not about science, but about preserving their own freedom. And he again ran. Fortunately, that former employees of the company "K. Zworykin, helped with the money ...
Ekaterinburg W. was arrested and was saved only thanks to the arrival of the Czechs. Finally, he reached the capital of an independent Siberia - r. Omsk. Here, as anticipated Z., appreciated his expertise and issued the necessary papers to travel to the U.S..
At the end of 1918, toured their homeland with the Overseas Countries and plenty enough for this evil, SW. arrived in the U.S.. But by doing relevant work, he could
violate its obligations to the Siberian Government, and through Japan, Harbin and Vladivostok, returned to Omsk. And only my second trip here in the U.S., in the same in 1919, eventually placed him in the ranks of immigrants.
In New York, with the help of the Russian ambassador Vladimir Bakhmet'eva, SW. hardly settled in Pittsburgh in the famous company "Westinghouse Electric". This gave him the opportunity to create in 1923. television set, which became the basis for transferring a pipe with a mosaic fotokodom, which, however, did not produce a proper impression on the leadership of the company. Only 15 years later, after a stubborn fight for his invention, Z., received a patent.
1929. culmination of a systematic effort W. to implement its "television ideas". The original design of high-tube (receiving electronic tubes) and individual elements teleequipment determined its fundamental part in the formidable technical problem - the accumulation of point charges fotoelemetov, . usually instantly disappearing in electron-beam scan,
. Inoskop in 1931. already had a special cathode-ray tube with a photosensitive mosaic structure.
Practical Television, created by W. with decomposition at 240 lines (1933) and 343 lines (1934) was used in the U.S. with the first television broadcasts in 1936.
Since 1933. Z. actively communicate and exchange experiences with Soviet scientists radioelektronschikami, both in the United States and the USSR, where he twice visited. The result of these meetings and talks was a unique agreement of the American Radio Corporation (RCA) with Narokomatom electrical engineering.
Until 1954, when W. resigned from his post as head of the lab RCA, he combined fundamental research in the field of television with the use of electronics in communications, optics, metereologii, medicine ...
W. was director of the Center for Medical Electronics at the Rockefeller Institute, president of the International Federation of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, a member of many American academies, scientific societies and professional groups. His name was entered on the board of the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame.
More than 80 works and 120 patents rightfully allowed to call W. "gift to the American continent". Among the other 30 awards, . which he was awarded for his long and fruitful life, . were listed, . in particular: the National Medal of Science, USA, . Presidential Diploma of Honor, . Pioneer Award of the American Association of Manufacturers and the Legion of Honor of France,
Died on 29 July 1982. Princeton (New Jersey).