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STRUVE Otto Ludwigovich

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Biography STRUVE Otto Ludwigovich
Name Ludwigovich astrophysicist Otto Struve American Struve (in contrast to the succession of his glorious ancestors of the Russian world-famous astronomical dynasty: great-grandfather, . grandfather, . father and uncle) first appeared on the cover of the book, . published at home after his death, . curtain Khrushchev thaw,
.

In 1968. publishing world, where at that time actively translating foreign scientific literature, abolished the current astronomical edition published a monograph summarizing Otto Struve and Welt Zebergs Astronomy XX century. Russian readers of the book presents a historian of astronomy PG. Kulikovskii by providing translation deployed and the warm introduction, and he personally knew, and Struve was with him in the correspondence.

The eldest of the two authors, Otto Struve, plainly marked in the preface as an outstanding scientist and organizer. In the spirit of the time, of course, specifically provides that Struve with great sympathy for the Soviet astronomers, whose work he was very interested. Despite the opposition of the superpowers during the Cold War, as president of the International Astronomical Union (MAC) to distinguish it correctness and loyalty: The representatives of the Soviet astronomy appreciated the attention and objectivity, which is about. Struve showed to the Soviet proposals, being in this position. He was not afraid of conviction for a broad scientific collaboration with Soviet astronomers.

This, however, did not prevent Struve eagerly traveled for scientific purposes throughout the world tactfully, but firmly, to evade all themselves drifted into his hands the opportunity to visit the Soviet Union. Forced to leave home, never in his life had he stepped on a land of their fathers, even after Stalin's death, even for the sake of participation in the next Congress of the International Astronomical Union in 1958. Moscow.

Like Stravinsky in music, Sikorsky Aviation, or Gamow in physics, Otto Struve, after World War II unequivocally belonged to the informal circle of international leaders in astronomy. Moreover, the attentive reader may already said to myself that this leadership was even as if formalized: in 1952. American Struve was elected president of the International Astronomical Union. This is not trivial and not typical of the fact. A foreigner by birth and by the initial formation, . appearing in the U.S. only at age 24, . surrounded by a galaxy of eminent astronomers, . born and raised in the U.S., . Struve long time represented this country at the highest position as an authoritative international forum,


. How did it happen, . that the support of Russia's loud astronomical name and spiritual heir of the founder and first director of the astronomical capital of the world, . Pulkovo, . success and worldwide recognition is not at home, . and beyond? The answer to this question lies in two sources: the biography of the hero of our story and in the social context of science in the U.S.,
. It's no secret that in the outpost of modern astrophysics in the U.S., conditions were favorable for the development of many powerful talent, not only from Europe but from Asia.

The fate of the dynasty

Thus, the circumstances of a child with a traditional family name of Otto Struve did not promise anything wrong at first. His great-grandfather Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (son of Jacob, and therefore in Russia Vasily Yakovlevich) Struve (1793-1864), . native of Altona, near Hamburg, . alumnus of the University of Dorpat, . almost until his death remained a director he created the Pulkovo Observatory,
. At age 16, fleeing from the mobilization of the Napoleonic army, he fled from Germany to Russia, and like many Russified Germans considered her a true homeland. He was elevated to the rank of the actual state councilor, and thereby acquired the right of hereditary nobleman Russia, passing to the children. Along with Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) Struve, senior earned the honor rightfully called in encyclopedias most prominent astronomer of the nineteenth century.

For two years before the death of his father's post-Struve, director of Pulkovo Observatory went to one of his many sons, William Otto (Otto Vasilievich) Struve (1819-1905). Directorship of the second Struve lasted 27 years, though accompanied by some of my turmoil marked by the construction of Pulkovo 1885. largest while refractor telescope with a lens 30 inches (76 cm) in diameter. This lens, heroically rescued at Pulkovo destruction during World War II, was commissioned and executed in the U.S..

Two sons of the second Struve went to his father's footsteps and also become astronomers. Karl-Hermann (Herman Ottovich) Struve (1854-1920) originally worked in Pulkovo, but in 1895. received a flattering offer to take the post of Director of Koenigsberg Observatory, in which up to him at the beginning of the century he worked as a great Bessel. Later, in 1904,. until his death, Karl Hermann Struve headed the capital Berlin Babelsbergskuyu observatory

. Less than Karl Hermann four years, . Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig (Ludwig Ottovich) Struve (1858-1920) also started at Pulkovo, . but after the internship in many famous European observatories became a professor at Kharkov University and director of its astronomical observatory,
. In this generation, the younger Struve taught entirely in Russian and from childhood, and talked freely in German and in Russian.

American Struve, the son of Ludwig Ottovich, was born just after the family moved to Kharkov, 12 August 1897. At this time his grandfather had already resigned from his post as director of Pulkovo Observatory, but his father and uncle were active and influential astronomers.

Young Otto to 12 years at home, then in high school. He was well made general education, spoke several European languages, except English, but part of astronomy that education was an old-fashioned and so much limp. His father on the family tradition was interested mainly astrometry (accurate positional measurements) and the study of binary stars. It was the cutting edge of astronomy XIX, but not in XX. Cruising know] on modern physics and astrophysics, acquired from young Struve in Kharkov, was scanty.

In 17 years, Otto graduated with honors from high school and enrolled in Kharkov! sky University. Meanwhile, happy for him the event was overshadowed by the outbreak of the First World War. And off they'd go very wrong, the spacecraft was intended for his birth in a wealthy and famous family.
Already as a student, he thought himself not entitled to evade military service and left it for the time astronomy and mathematics, at age 19, shortly before the revolution, was in Petrograd artillery school. A year later he was sent to the army on the Turkish front and returned to Kharkiv only in 1918, after the signing of the infamous Brest-Litovsk peace. Meanwhile, as is well known, the country is drawn into the abyss of a bloody feud.

Artillery officer, Otto fought on the side of white, received combat wounds, was seriously ill and, together with the retreating White Army was evacuated to the Crimea. Eventually, after the storming Perekopa and defeat the White Army in Crimea, he was in Turkey, without a penny in my pocket.

Living Otto was not on that, and the situation looked hopeless. Beloved father, laid-back during the revolution of the work, died of a heart attack Kharkov. His brother, like Otto who fought in the ranks of white, died of tuberculosis, complicated by malnutrition. Russian officers in Turkey were selling the last of clothing casual handouts, everyone was for himself and could save as

. It is hard to imagine, . that in subsequent years personal experience of Otto Struve gave him reason to idealize the manner of life in Soviet Russia under the Bolsheviks, . where one after another tragically killed his family, . acquaintances and friends, . including the disappeared in the waves of the Great Terror of another Kharkovian, . Director of the Pulkovo Observatory Gerasimovitch Boris Petrovich (1889-1937),
.

Hardly a sleepless night tormented Struve burning desire to return to Kharkiv, and his stubborn refusal to pay a visit to the USSR does not require complex psychological specialties. However, he tried never to give out the will of their emotions: neither positive nor negative.

In search of happiness

Otto Struve is lost in obscurity due to the high-profile scientific name of the family and the endless to efforts of his caring family in Germany. On refuge in Germany itself did not have to think. The postwar Weimar Republic could not provide the conditions for the survival of orphaned Kharkov student. However, Aunt Eva had been able to turn to Professor Paul Gutnik (1879-1947), successor to the deceased Karl Hermann Struve as director of the Berlin Observatory Babelsbergskoy. Aunt begged the new director to take part in the fate of the young Otto, the nephew of Karl Hermann. The importance of family ties would do well to remember and many of our contemporaries.

A team of Yerkes Observatory in 1925. Young Otto Struve stands in the back row, extreme left. Below, second from left, his mother Elizabeth Struve, the fifth director of the observatory Edwin Frost. Among seated fourth from left H. T. Bobrovnikov. This picture, as well as images, placed on, published with the kind permission of the Yerkes Observatory. Photo donated by Richard Dreiser.

Professor Gutnik not found it shameful to address a letter to the U.S. to his friend, the director of Yerkes Observatory Edwin Frost (1866-1935). Observatory belonged to the famous educational institution the University of Chicago, but in those years could not boast of bright scientific results.

Pedigree Yerkes Observatory dates back to the autumn of 1892, when two gentlemen sidled
entered the office of Mr. Charles T. Yerkes, nicknamed Budler (grasper), tram and railroad magnates of business in the largest cities of the English-speaking world. This flamboyant multimillionaire, was the prototype for a trilogy of Theodore Dreiser's Financier, Titan and The Stoic. Shortly before the events described, he married a young beautiful girl and was in good spirits

. The visitors of the Yerkes that day were the president had just organized the glory of the city of Chicago University and quite a young university professor of astrophysics, George Ellery Hale (1868-1938), . future world astrophysical shining and the father-founder of the International Astronomical Union, . the first in the modern history of the scientific body of this kind,
. For Hale's visit to the Yerkes became, so to speak, the breakdown of the pen, the first experience among his subsequent dizzying feats, part of making money for the construction of large telescopes.

Hours of talks with Yerkes was crowned with triumph. Multi-newlywed was predisposed to possess all the most that on is huge and the best in the world. History, of course, did not keep verbatim expressions addressed to scientists asylum, but most likely, he muttered something like: Go ahead. Let them all die from envy to Chicago. Scores Send me.

After a two-thirds of Chicago burned in the flames of the great fire of 1871, the city rapidly grew and grew in strength. Not accidentally, he was awarded the honor of hosting the World Exhibition 1933. Century of Progress. Today is the third of its industrial, scientific and cultural potential of the U.S. city after New York and Los Angeles.
So, the money for a telescope found. Twenty hectares of land for the observatory gave the university a rich landowner in a picturesque forest on the hill near the clean, deep lake, where there were several villas of wealthy Chicagoans. The site is located 120 kilometers north of Chicago, already abroad, of Illinois, t. e. the very south of the neighboring state of Wisconsin. Was called the resort town of Williams Bay.

In just five years, astronomers from the hands of the keys of the Yerkes 40-inch (102 cm) refracting telescope is still the largest refractor of the world, the last of the dinosaur era rolled lens tools. Its high-quality lens polished in the same optical shop Clark family in Boston, where the order O. V. Struve were manufactured lens for the Pulkovo Observatory. The trouble was, only that the climate in the midwestern United States in the Great Lakes, the location of Chicago, could not please the astronomer. There is often windy and overcast.

We note in passing that while the creation of specialized Astrophysical Observatory prudent Hale has also institutions Astrophysical Journal, for the issue that took Publishers University of Chicago. For this reason, director of Yerkes Observatory, grew by more than half a century post and editors of this magazine.

Hale left Chicago for the new large telescopes on the mountain ledges sunny California. Yerkes Observatory declined. Its fair to christen the scientific backwater in the shadow of two successful and competitive astrophysical giants: networks of astronomical institutions in the West and East coasts of the USA

. On the East (Atlantic) coast of work such international celebrities, . as Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957) at Princeton University and Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) at Harvard, . as well as a number of their students, . beginning with Cecilia Payne (1900-1979) and Donald Menzel (1901-1976),
. We try to mention here only the academic institutions and astronomers, who may be more or less known to readers Russia.

Important astronomical centers of the traditional style on the Atlantic coast were also Yale University and the Naval Observatory in Washington, DC

. In the West (Pacific) coast in the Mount Wilson Observatory was established at the time the largest in the world 100-inch (two and a half meter) reflecting telescope and worked with such outstanding astrophysics, . as Hale and Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), . studied, . incidentally, . is in the University of Chicago,
. Another important astronomical center of the West Coast was Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton near San Francisco. Planned West commissioning the 200-inch (five-meter) reflector at Mount Palomar in the vicinity of Los Angeles was delayed until 1948. because of the Great Depression and World War II.

Meanwhile, the second in a row is not a brilliant director of the great scientific achievements of Yerkes Observatory differed responsiveness and perseverance, so necessary in delicate matter, which he had to do. He has reserved for Otto Struve modest job assistant stellar spectroscopy with a salary of 75 dollars. a month and went through U.S. charitable organizations to petition for entry visa. How this reminds the situation, very often encountered in the fate of the scientists after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
As a result of persistent efforts Frost American visa was finally obtained, the cheapest tickets purchased, and at the end of August 1921, Mr.. Otto served in the month ocean voyage to the shores of the New World. Ragged, a student who failed to Kharkov, penniless and without the necessary English language. No diploma he had no. He had to deal with stellar spectroscopy, which he did not know much. Nothing in his appearance was reminiscent of a proud D'Artagnan, in search of happiness frolicking from the provinces to conquer Paris.

Scientific Career

Recall for the uninitiated, is doing astronomy. It is based on research coming from the infinite expanses of the universe of electromagnetic radiation. Now we are able to analyze the radiation in different spectral bands, but first, astronomers were limited only by visible light. Could measure the position in the sky light sources, this oldest branch of astronomy called positional astronomy, or astrometry. Astrometry provides the hands of geophysicists, some data on the dynamics of the Earth as a celestial body. It also provides a measurement of time.

Can be interpreted theoretically obtained by astrometric measurements of data on the movements of celestial bodies, this section deals vysokomatematizirovanny Astronomy Celestial Mechanics.

There are other possibilities of analysis of light, such as measuring the intensity of its flow. This role photometry, which began Astrophysics. Can measure the polarization properties of the incoming flux. However, the most refined method of astrophysical research is spectroscopy: the decomposition of the incoming radiation in the spectrum with the subsequent analysis of the situation and the intensity of spectral lines. Figurative expression states that the spectra are fingerprints of the studied celestial objects.

The quality of the spectrum, especially for faint objects, depends on the intensity of the investigated flux. Lens telescope in his eyes. The larger the lens, the more light it gathers, and the richer the results of spectral analysis. In
Subsequently they lead to a richer theoretical generalizations.

The first director of the Pulkovo Observatory VY. Struve succeeded in astrometry and astrophysics the term had not even existed. His direct descendant of the fourth generation began his career as an astrophysicist, spectroscopists. In this area was to accumulate data on the spectra of normal, ordinary celestial objects and objects than any stand out, peculiar. The interpretation of these data offer the opportunity to judge the ways of birth, life and death of stars and galaxies, their features, the number and properties of interplanetary matter. These data served as a breeding ground for cosmology, for the most theoretical section of astronomy, studying the origin and evolution of the universe as a whole.

Spectroscopy in fact, was the front line of astronomy, and one might say, was not there such a pressing problem, which had no time to be in his writings touch on the ubiquitous Struve. The total number of its publications to the end of life was, roughly speaking, nine hundred, which is close to an absolute record among scientists of any field.

Struve was the most important data on the composition and properties of the diffuse interstellar medium, re-estimate the distance to the center of the Galaxy. Being engaged in the rotation of stars, he established a relationship between the rate of axial rotation and the mass of the star, justifying the thesis that mass loss plays a leading role in the evolution of stars. He first drew attention to the difference in chemical composition of stars as another important evolutionary factor. He discovered that the rapidly rotating stars are in an unstable state and evolving through the emission of the gas ring of matter, similar to the envelopes of new, or by splitting. He discovered the expansion of the upper atmosphere by a number of stars and turbulence in the atmospheres of stars, supergiants, investigated the effect of electromagnetic fields, gave the theory of stellar atmospheres.
His main theme is very wide, but in the eyes of a formalist many scientific breakthroughs have been committed as it is not his own, and his numerous disciples and followers.

Convinced of the prospects of a new theme, Struve immediately handed her a detailed elaboration of the other, and he went ahead. Throughout his life, remaining generator of new ideas, especially in the field of observational means, he generously shared them with his companions

. What, . but talent, . Speakerphone names, . Fortunately, . general, . usually, . decent and fair treatment of Americans to immigrants, . ensured the resounding success of Otto Struve in his new life overseas? Among many other reasons in the first place should be called modesty and his amazing performance, . heirloom, . apparently, . genetically inherited from plodding German ancestors,
. Not figuratively, but literally Struve worked night and day. Nights he spent, not closing my eyes, the telescope at night, and perform measurements and processed data obtained. Nothing could knock it out once and for all instigated labor rate: no marriage (1925), or fairly frequent research trips, or relief after the receipt of U.S. citizenship (1927).

Before his marriage Struve crossed the completion of the dissertation study of short-spectral-binary stars, brilliantly defended its December 8, 1923, Mr.. So he became a full-fledged American Ph. D. Ph.D.. His salary at that time was already a decent amount of 1800 dollars. per year, ie. twice the one with which he began working career in America. Very soon, in connection with the successful defense of the thesis, it will increase by another third, reaching 2 400 dollars. year.

Leader

What people think about it at this time in American astronomical circles? Young Russian coped with the difficulties of the English language. All his life he will speak with a slight accent, but his numerous public speeches do not arouse the audience voltage. He leaps and bounds before catching up in understanding the problems of modern physics and astrophysics, enjoys every convenient opportunity to supplement their knowledge of modern astronomy.

But all this does not even important. As astronomer observer to obtain fresh data young Russian far ahead of all other American astronomers, young and old. As a scientist, he has the enviable ability to grasp and instantly recognize the importance of new scientific ideas, . quickly find and use existing observational data, . successfully adding to them their own, . lightning perform, . Although gross, . but quite adequate quantitative assessment and, . Finally, . without delay to send their findings in print,
. Of course, you have learned in this description of the style of contemporary successful scientific work, but in the 20 years this style was a novelty and attracted the attention of high efficiency.
If the motto of the great mathematician and astronomer of the last century, Gauss could serve as an expression Raisa sed matura (less is better, but mature), the Struve acted in a diametrically opposite style. He repeatedly returned to his previously published findings, tirelessly supplement, and correcting them. In this case the most significant was the fact that it was originally published conclusions always prove to be no fast-ripening, and deeply thought out and rightly. Continuing improvements require only a final quantitative estimates and some details.

Stroke to the portrait of the worker Otto, describing his style of hard work. Many hours he spent at the eyepiece of the microscope, by measuring the intensity and width of the lines of stellar spectra. To save time, he learned one eye to look through the eyepiece, while the other eye simultaneously recorded the readings on the measuring scale. An unexpected consequence of this constant workout was that in everyday life Struve eyes sometimes looked slightly in different directions, that very often gave his face a very strange expression. Wit and. S. Shklovsky once remarked that scientists can evaluate the same way as football and forwards: the number of goals scored. He said this in relation to other Russian Americans GA. Gamow (1904-1968), who after a dramatic escape to America really personally scored some brilliant goals, including the development of the theory of the Big Bang. In general proposition Shklovsky witty, but not very accurate. In football team play not only forwards, but the defenders and goalkeeper, scoring goals is not. Above all, among the soccer coaches appreciate the players think of those who orchestrate the collective game, t. e. transform bright individuality in the close-knit ensemble. Solidary team in relation to science Scientific School. In Soviet physics shining example of the outstanding conductor-leader was, as once sang Vysotsky, the chief academic A. F. Joffe.

Continuing the comparison of the Shklovsky against Struve, we must conclude that the latter also scored personal goals may be, however, not so beautiful and not so historically memorable as the genius goals Gamow. The ultimate and undeniable merit Struve is in his role as leader of the scientific school

. Director of the Yerkes Observatory

. So, . a decade after the arrival Struve in the United States identified the following circumstances: he survived, . it is fully adapted to the American way of life, . He found his academic path and achieved a certain fame and recognition as a gifted, . versatile and productive astronomer,
. Then he lucky that he honestly earned.

For the guardian and benefactor of Struve's second in line to Director of Yerkes Observatory Frost's time has come to the resignation. By this time, Struve morally paid the full Frost. He brought to the publication indefinitely protracted, cumbersome and sluggish scientific projects of his boss and his staff, and the list of sponsors of the Director of the observatory always means the first and last name of Struve.

On the substitution of the post of Director of the University Observatory, as usual, considered several candidates for the eminent and less known newcomers Normans. However, the president of the University of Chicago gave preference to Otto Struve, and chose it for him. Details of this story interesting.

University President after the election received from the Chicago newspaperman derisive nickname of a boy. Son of a liberal priest, . defending equal rights for blacks and whites, . brilliant graduate of Yale Law School, . with an unusually rich for their parent thirty years administrative experience, . He boldly came out the victor in the battle for the prestigious post of President of the University of Chicago,
. By the time he was under consideration only a little older, and he was extremely impressed by the enthusiasm and efficiency of a 35-year Struve. They were men of one generation and the common system of values.

At the university president because of his liberal political views does not give the impression impassioned pleas of the old guard not to give American science at the mercy of foreigners. He completely ignored such escapades. The main criterion for the decision were the specific results of scientific work. He valued Struve remained exceptionally high, and his good administrative genius for many years, their contacts. Diplomat Struve did not ignore his dean, but the difficult and fundamental questions for the director of the observatory is always solved by direct treatment over the head of the dean to the president of the University.

In 1932, Mr.. Struve was the third director of the Yerkes Observatory, which is experiencing a severe and protracted crisis. By the same troubles added misfortune Great Depression, and the Observatory, without any exaggeration, was on the brink of survival in the medical language, she was in a state of clinical death. What steps ought to take the newfound Director?

Struve took remarkable personal courage by pulling dead wood. Reduction negligent and non-productive researchers in the U.S. very often just as difficult and painful, as in Russia. Sadly this state, . Struve but acted in a few cases, the same disgusting methods, . which are well known from the Soviet practice: ensure compliance with labor discipline, . recorded late at work and absence from work during the hours of observation,
. The horror of the situation was and that fired the Americans had been good.

The vacated few jobs were to take the best of the best. However gifted graduates of prestigious American universities are not eager to low-paying jobs in a rundown Yerkes Observatory. In most cases, Struve managed to lure the work is not the candidate, whom he regarded as number one, but only his backup. But even those were doubles in their narrow fields of expertise extra -. And as luck in the vast majority of them were foreigners: Gerard Kuiper (1905-1973) from Holland, Bengt StrцTmgren (1908-1987) from Denmark, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995) from India. Any astronomer can not help but notice that this list is the color of the American postwar astronomy, and everything in it is named in one way or another pupils Struve.

Especially a lot of blood was worth Struve invitation to work SMU-glokozhego Chandrasekhar. The young Indian was a mature theorist, by the way, who knew his worth. He was born on the territory of modern Pakistan in the famous brahminic family and brilliantly studied in Madras. His uncle, Sir Chandrasekhar Raman (1888-1979), also studied in Madras, won the Nobel Prize in Physics 1930. Nephew of Nobel laureate continued teaching at Cambridge University in England, the great astrophysicist Eddington. This was in the order of things, because India was part of the British Empire.

But the United States still had to survive several decades before the victory of a powerful movement for civil rights, racial prejudice has crippled. Direct chief director of the observatory, Dean, was an outspoken racist and flatly refused to take the Chandrasekhar-time in the University. In the course has been started up, even the argument that the young Indian shares communist beliefs (he visited the Soviet Union)

. Severe for Struve conflict was resolved only by the intervention of President of the University, . who wrote the director of the observatory: The only circumstance, . which should be taken into account when deciding on job, . is the ability of the researcher,
. I'm not interested in his political views, if only they would not lead to trouble with the police. I hope he [Chandrasekhar] is aware that the call for the violent overthrow of the government in Illinois is considered a criminal offense. Struve insisted, and, as always, fully achieved its goal. Above all, he was not mistaken in the evaluation of new employees: Chandrasekhar successfully worked in Chicago from 1937. until his death, having received for his work in the field of astrophysics, the Nobel Prize in Physics 1983.

After the war, the list of talented foreigners who have worked Struve, more enriched and refugee from Nazi Germany's Gerhard Herzberg, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971. Of course, no need to exaggerate: among the brilliant staff Struve were young astronomers who were born and studying in the U.S., for example, William Morgan, and Dessi Grinstejn.

Looking from a height of historical perspective, we can only wonder at the success of Struve personnel reorganization Observatory. This was considered an honor to come to the observations, astronomers around the world: from Russia B. P. Gerasimovich and academician G. A. Shain, of Belgium Paul Swing from Germany cousin Georg Otto Hermann Struve (1886-1933), son of uncle Berlin Babelsbergskoy Observatory, Dane Kaj Strand, the Argentinian Jorge Saheyd and many others. Especially the friendly relations associated with Struve Leiden Observatory. Dutch astronomers stayed with him, one after another: Hendrik van de Hulst, Adriaan Blaauw, Marcel Minnaert, Jan Oort.

Annals of the Observatory at Struve keep traces of it in many future leaders of the European astronomical. Be pervasive throughout the young and venerable American visitors. Scientific School of Otto Struve, as once the school of his great-grandfather in Pulkovo, came to the position of world leader. And when in 1950, Mr.. Struve decided to leave for California, he could make it with a quiet mind and a pure heart.

Autumn and winter of the patriarch

A radical update training was important, but not the only venture a new director of the observatory, University of Chicago. In the field of view of Struve was another equally important task: a radical upgrade instrumentation. As air Struve need a big telescope, located in astroklimaticheskih conditions, of course, superior to the mediocre astroklimaticheskie conditions in Williams Bay. As you know, who does not wish to seriously pursue his own business, looking for excuses for inaction. Who wants to seek and find creative solutions. Struve solved the problem of creating a new instrumentation observatory in his usual non-standard manner.

It so happened that a Texas banker William MacDonald bequeathed to the University of Texas fair amount of money to build the telescope, plunging the authorities of the University in a strong depression. They have absolutely no staff to cope with such a complex and laborious task. Dean asked the Board of Directors for a number of U.S. observatories. It was not the case before the University of Texas, and they shrugged. Hunt on the advice was just not too burdened by the daily scientific work of Frost, director of Yerkes Observatory, but further exchange of letters, he also did not move. Money for the telescope lay unclaimed until they have not learned from Frost Struve.

Quiet and highly diplomatic, skillfully maneuvering between the two Presidents gonoristyh universities, Struve prepared and put into practice an unprecedented agreement. Money, . bequeathed MacDonald, . were to build a 82-inch telescope (the two-meter telescope became the second largest in the U.S. and the world) in the observatory, . 30 years (1932-1962) managed together as Texas, . and the University of Chicago,
. Struve scrupulously has provided all the rights and obligations of owners, including the distribution of observation time. Of course, its share fell titanic work on site selection, design, construction and commissioning of the new telescope. But Struve got what the wanted: the ability to constantly work on excellent astrophysical tool in different mountainous regions of Texas. Thus was born the observatory MacDonald, one might say, a subsidiary of Yerkes Observatory, a monument to the tact, diplomatic and professional skills Struve.

After two serious for the whole of America and the Struve periods of the Great Depression and World War II, the postwar years in Williams Bay seemed golden in the autumn of the patriarch.
In 1946, Mr.. with Shapley and Joel Stebbins (1878-1966) Struve, flew to Copenhagen to talks on the resumption of the International Astronomical Union. As can be seen, with this responsible mission to the European colleagues were assigned the three most influential astronomer of the U.S. at that time, and Struve was the youngest of them. At the first postwar Congress of MAC in 1948. Struve was elected its vice-president.

Yerkes Observatory resembled a beehive, which is visited and where to exchange the latest scientific results of all the leading figures of the astronomical world. She was an equal partner in the Faculty of Physics, University of Chicago, employing a number of Nobel laureates, including Robert Millikan (1868-1953) and Enrico Fermi (1901-1954). Recall that during the war, much of the U.S. atomic project in the name of the University of Chicago.

Especially memorable for the Struve began in 1947, 15 th year of his tenure as director of Yerkes Observatory and editor of the Astrophysical Journal. Yerkes Observatory celebrated 50 years of its existence. Struve, a contemporary of the observatory, is also celebrating the fiftieth anniversary. Jubilees were held with pomp and ceremony confined to his valuable scientific symposia. But soon replaced the golden autumn for the Struve came alarming winter.

In 1947, Mr.. Struve realized long-cherished plan of administrative reorganization of astronomy at Chicago. He invented his post as a superdirektora, responsible, and for the two observatories (Yerkes and Mc Donald), and for the Department of Astronomy, University of. This gave him the right to formally resign as director of Yerkes Observatory and editor of the Astrophysical Journal, opening up opportunities for the long-awaited move for someone of his pupils.

Incidentally Struve freed from many of his burden of administrative hassle. Life, however, showed that the reorganization not only easier, but more complicated its relationship with J. Kuiper and other key staff. The cause of friction, to speak very briefly, was simple and clear: the collected Struve bright talent has been closely under one roof. Long unproven, they have outgrown the custody Struve and afraid of his rich imagination to develop new unknown of the scientific plans. The best students accused his teacher in dictatorial ways, neglecting their personal scientific interests and even duplicity. Kuiper unfair and bitterly wrote at that time that Struve wanted to appear before the world's second George Ellery Hale, but to his closest colleagues said to be a tyrant and a despot.

Amid growing, like a cancerous tumor, the conflict in 1950, Mr.. Struve went to the University of California. Under this general title united a large group of essentially independent universities. For clarification about any of them referred to in parentheses indicate the location: Los Angeles, Irvine, San Diego, Santa Barbara, etc.. Struve moved to the University of California (Berkeley). His goal was to reiterate in the life of something with which he had once mastered so well: to create a new strong Berkeley astrophysics department. For observations here that he had open access to large telescopes of California Lick Observatory and the Mount Wilson Observatory.

Working in Berkeley, Struve received a very tempting offer, in particular, to take a highly prestigious post of director of an astronomical observatory at Harvard University. He thoroughly discussed such proposals and skillfully used their requirements for additional appropriations for Astrophysics in Berkeley. Ultimately, he rejected these proposals, and lost only once. In 1959, Mr.. surprise of many Struve received the offer to become director of the newly organized National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Experienced astronomers nor the U.S. nor the world at that time still on the merits was not. Mission director demanded a clear vision of a very distant prospect and a large institutional experience. Struve took the invitation as a recognition of his merits, which fully corresponded to reality. But the role of scientific leader in a completely unknown area was already too much for him.

Annoyed by itself, he remained a director of the NRAO at least three years, until January 1962.
Since his departure from Chicago Struve relationships with colleagues in the Yerkes Observatory gradually went back to normal. Students again recognized and appreciated his teacher. Family life was unchanged. Struve married shortly after his arrival in the U.S.. His wife Mary was a little older than him and divorced her first husband. It turned out that they can not have children. Already becoming a director of the Yerkes Observatory, Struve was aware that the fifth generation of astronomers in the Struve dynasty will never.

Mary was not quite shared aspirations and interests of Otto, and in his declining years, the famous and recognized, he felt lonely. His brutally tortured hepatitis podtseplenny whether in the period of Russian hard times, whether in Turkey. Made itself felt general weakness: in 1956, working at night on 60-inch telescope of Mount Wilson Observatory, Struve fell from a great height and broke several ribs. He spent five weeks in the hospital, began to wear a corset, but quickly returned to work. The fall, however, also has a consequence.

As any great scientist, Struve noted by many scientific awards. At Berkeley, he continued to receive regular pleasant signs of public recognition. During this period, he invited his young employee Welt Zebergs, the daughter of the Lick Observatory astronomer C. Vasilevskis, help him write a sort of scientific testament: Book of Astronomy XX century. It was published in English in 1962.

Died O.L. Struve in the hospital, Mr.. Berkeley, April 6, 1963, 65 th year. An example of his life
again demonstrated that the fear of foreigners are totally unfounded and counterproductive. U.S. born and continue melting pot for people from around the world. Struve and others fostered his talents from Europe and Asia, worked for American science and the glory of American science, successfully moving forward the science world. Thank God, the fear of foreign scientists in the U.S. today is much less serious problem than before the Second World War, in the distant 30-ies.

In the U.S., Otto Struve still remember often, would do well to remember more about him and at home in Russia. Last of the Mohicans in four generations of astronomical Struve dynasty, he upheld the honor and dignity of a noble family, as the saying goes, went not out of the genus, and in the genus. Millstones crushed civil war, abandoned in a foreign land, it is not broke, do not get lost, and for contributions to astronomy, rightly considered, succeeded his father, uncle and grandfather. Of course, in science there is no bureaucratic Table of Ranks. In true Hamburg score Otto Struve is on a par with his great-grandfather, founder of the Pulkovo Observatory in. YA. Struve.

Comes to mind a historical parallel. Otto Struve election for president of the International Astronomical Union has been for the development of astronomy in the world during the Cold War, an event part of the same values, . what was later to the whole world elected pope, Cardinal from Poland,
. Struve was equally support two cultural traditions: East and West. In his scientific and organizational activities, he became the living embodiment of a bridge between America, Europe and Asia. By personal example, he has stimulated extensive international cooperation without political boundaries at a new level, which, without exaggeration, has given astronomy XX in. second wind.


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