Skobel'tsina Dmitry( Scientific)
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Biography Skobel'tsina Dmitry
November 24 marks the 109 anniversary of the birth of Academician Dmitry Skobeltsyn, a prominent nuclear physicist, founder of the Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University. M.V. University. Dmitry Skobeltsyn born November 24, 1892 in St. Petersburg in the family of Professor St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. Skobeltsyn belonged to an ancient noble family - one of his ancestors during the reign of Ivan the Terrible led the Russian embassy in Vienna. After graduating from the University of Petrograd in 1915 Skobeltsyn devoted himself to educational work in the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute, and since 1925 - both in the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute.
. Major works are devoted to nuclear physics, cosmic rays and high energy physics
. DV research. Skobeltsyn began already in a fairly mature age - the first experiments were performed in 1923 in Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute and devoted to studying the Compton effect. In 1927 he went to the Paris laboratory of Maria Sklodowska-Curie.
DV. Skobeltsyn first used the idea issleddovaniya Compton electrons in a cloud chamber. In their experiments in 1927, he placed a cloud chamber in a magnetic field, allowing to determine the moments of charged particles and to monitor compton just to prove the existence of moments in the gamma-ray. These Skobeltsyn experimental results contradict the theories of Compton and Dirac, but agreed well with the theory of the Klein-Nishina-Tamm - the first convincing result in a new field of quantum electrodynamics (QED). In 1927, during the investigation of the Compton effect, Skobeltsyn using a cloud chamber osuschistvil observing tracks of relativistic particles from the atmosphere and found that they can not be the decay products of radioactive elements. Skobeltsyn showed that such particles often appear in the cloud chamber in groups of several particles, and this was the first observation of cosmic ray showers.
In 1928 at a conference in London report DV. Skobeltsyn was devoted to the study of relativistic particles, formed as a result of passage through the atmosphere of elementary particles coming from outer space. He showed that the ionization produced by these particles is consistent with the experimental data on the geophysical ionization, the nature of which at that time was not known. DV. Skobeltsyn introduced into physics by the modern definition of "cosmic rays" as a high-energy particles of cosmic origin.
Works DV. Skobeltsyn to cascade multiple processes (1929) were the first, and formed the basis of high energy physics, in particular, played a leading role in the discovery of the positron at first, then the muon and the strange particles. Role Skobeltsyn as the founder of high energy physics, among others, highlighted by such eminent physicists like Ernest Rutherford, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Dirac and Frederic Joliot-Curie.
. During the 30 years to explain the multiple cascades of electrons, positrons and gamma rays was established electro-magnetic cascade theory, based on QED
. Skobeltsyn first to use the energy conservation law for determining the quantum relationship between the number of particles in the maximum electro-magnetic cascade and the energy of primary particles, gave rise to this cascade. These relationships have been crucial for creating quantum cascade theory and identified the basic concept of a new experimental technique for studying high-energy particles - ionization calorimeter. In the late 30's, working at the Physical Institute. Lebedev, USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Skobeltsyn began a series of studies of extensive air showers, which are the product of the most energetic cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies (105-1011 GeV). These studies showed, . that these showers are not associated with well-known processes of electro-magnetic cascade, . and with the nuclear-cascade process and multiple production of hadrons, . that radically altered the then existing concept of cosmic ray particles as a purely electro-magnetic origin and formed the basis of modern notions of cosmic rays and their interaction with matter,
. For the discovery of nuclear-cascade process DV. Skobeltsyn in 1951 was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
First in February 1946 on the initiative Skobeltsyn was established Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), and Dmitry became its first director.
As the founder of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University and its director from 1946 to 1960, and as director of the Institute of. Lebedev in 1951-73 years Skobeltsyn had a great influence Mr. and scientific work and developed ideas. His work captured the development of various areas of nuclear physics, including the creation of new accelerators and the development of quantum electronics.
. In the last years of his life, until the last few days, Skobeltsyn interested in experiments on observation of narrow electron-positron resonances in collisions of relativistic nuclei
. He felt the connection between these phenomena with his experiments end 30-ies on the anomalous scattering of electrons from radioactive sources.
As an outstanding scientist, Skobeltsyn while to be a citizen of their country. He could have had the opportunity to stay abroad in any of the scientific missions, as did some of his contemporaries and colleagues, who later became luminaries of world science. But Skobeltsyn each time returned, and this gives us the right to conclude that the homeland has remained for him the notion of primary, and political system - secondary. Without people like Skobeltsyn, any five-year period would have remained on paper. Yes, of course, these are the people making the Soviet military superpower, gave communism its seventy-year reign, but they have saved their country and the rest of the world from being enslaved by fascism and created her highest scientific potential. Being people of the debt, they carried out their duty not to communism, and the motherland.
Dmitry died at the age of 98 years on Nov. 16, 1990 in Moscow.
At the request of the Academic Council SINP MSU in 1993. decision of the Academic Council of Moscow State Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University was named Dmitry Skobeltsyn.
TSB, Article N.A. Dobrotina "Skobeltsyn Dmitry"
Yu.A.. Temples. Physics. Biographical Directory. M, "Science", 1983.
George Zatsepin (Institute for Nuclear Research), George Christiansen (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University), Dmitry Skobeltsyn Published in "Physics Today", May 1992, p.. 74-76.
A. Goryanin. Learned and unlearned power. The fate of non-party academician Dmitry Skobeltsyn. "Russian Thought", Paris, N 4356, 8 March 2001