Stratton, John William( Scientific)
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Biography Stratton, John William
Have you ever wondered why the blue sky is crimson sunset? This phenomenon is explained by Lord Rayleigh, which is rightly considered one of the founders of the theory of vibrations. He found that the intensity of the scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the degree of the wavelength of the exciting light (Rayleigh). Looking at the cloudless sky, we see diffused sunlight, and at sunset and sunrise - direct sunlight.
John William Stratton (the title of Lord Rayleigh he received after his father's death in 1873) was born November 12, 1842 in Langford Grove in Essex (today - 159 years from the date of his birth). In 1865 he graduated from Cambridge University, where he worked at Trinity College until 1871, and in 1871 created a family estate in his own laboratory. In 1879, Raleigh became a professor at Cambridge University and director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1887 - Professor of the British Royal Institute in London, and in 1908 - the president of Cambridge University.
. Rayleigh range of scientific interests was extremely wide: the theory of oscillations, optics, acoustics, theory of thermal radiation, molecular physics, hydrodynamics, electricity and other fields of physics
. Investigating the acoustic oscillations (oscillations of strings, . rods, . plates, etc.), . He made a number of fundamental theorems of linear vibration theory (1873), . allow to make qualitative conclusions about the characteristic frequencies of oscillatory systems, . and developed a quantitative method for finding the perturbation of natural frequencies of the vibrational,
. Rayleigh explained the difference between the group and phase velocities and obtained the formula for the group velocity (Rayleigh formula), . also considered the problem of addition of many oscillations with random phases and received a distribution function for the resulting amplitude, . later received his name (Rayleigh distribution),
. The method, developed at the same time, to a large extent determined the further development of the theory of random processes.
In the theory of elastic waves P. considered the diffraction, scattering and absorption of waves, the pressure of sound waves of finite amplitude is investigated and a special type of surface waves (Rayleigh waves). Work on the theory of Rayleigh fluctuations were systematized them in the fundamental two-volume work "The Theory of Sound", . first published in 1877-78 years, . which was first expressed in a unified approach to the study of oscillatory and wave processes, . have very different nature.,
. Regardless of O. Heaviside Raleigh built a theory of skin effect, in 1887 discovered the law of magnetization, discovered the phenomenon of magnetic viscosity.
. In 1894, Raleigh, together with U
. Ramsay opened a new chemical element - argon, and determined its properties and place in the periodic system of elements. For this work, Lord Rayleigh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1904 - a study of the density of gaseous elements and the discovery in connection with the argon.
. In 1900, Rayleigh deduced the law of distribution of radiation energy in the spectrum of a blackbody as a function of temperature (Rayleigh-Jeans law), which was of great importance for the emergence of quantum theory.
. In addition to the discoveries in various fields of fundamental physics, Lord Rayleigh left behind a number of inventions
. His name had not only many, many physical concepts and laws, but also devices, for example, invented a differential pressure gauge (manometer Rayleigh), Rayleigh refractometer, a device for measuring the strength of sound (CD Rayleigh). In 1879 he created the theory of the resolving power of optical instruments.
. Lord Rayleigh died June 30, 1919, leaving the world so vast scientific heritage, it is difficult to imagine how this could fit kolichesktvo discoveries and inventions only one human life.