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SPERANSKY George Nesterovich

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Biography SPERANSKY George Nesterovich
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George Nesterovich Speranski was born in Moscow on 7 (19) February 1873. in a military family physician. After graduating in 1898. Medical Faculty of Moscow University, GN. Speranski worked at the clinic, led N.F. Filatov, with whose family he had a great friendship and. (Niece Nile Fyodorovich - Elizabeth Filatova began in 1898. wife GN. Speranskii.) In the clinic, along with assistant VG. Grigoriev and intern SA. Vasilev GN. Speranski recorded and published 2 volumes of clinical lectures, edited N.F. Filatov.

After finishing residency in 1901. GN. Speranski worked supernumerary assistant (free), combining work as a school doctor in the Alexander Mariynskoe Institute of noble maidens. In 1904. traveled abroad, where he got acquainted with the work of the best clinics in Berlin, Vienna, Budapest.

Working in Children's Hospital, George Nesterovich advised children in obstetric clinic of Professor. NI. Pobedinskoe, and in 1907. became the first staff member of a maternity hospital in Moscow, led by AN. Rakhmanov. In fact, from this moment originates the formation of maternal and child health in Russia. At Forest Street George Nesterovich opens the first child health clinic in Moscow, and in 1910. in Malaya Dmitrovka - hospital for 12 beds - Russia's first hospital-type institution for infants.

In 1912, Mr.. for more fresh opened a clinic for infants to 20 beds. In early 1913. at the hospital was set up a permanent exhibition for parents to nurture an infant. The initiative of GN. Speranskii near the hospital was open consultation on the care and feeding of infants - a prototype of children's consultations in the mid-50's were merged with the children's clinics or closed. This was allowed deviation from the wise line of outstanding scientist pediatrician Russia.

Organized GN. Speransky institutions accounted for a single set - "House of infant>, which regularly held scientific conferences, exhibitions were held. Not become obsolete words GN. Sperdnski: <When I first turn on the idea of studying healthy child, many of my colleagues did not understand me. Engage in healthy children at a time, . when the disease claimed thousands of lives, . when the charter is not allowed to take in the hospital of children under two years, simply because, . that more than half of them perished there! And it all in, . that the physiology of the child, . especially newborn, . was then a white spot in science,
. But I realized that, without studying it, we can not overcome the disease>.

Indeed, infant mortality in Russia in 1913. averaged 26.9%, and among cities in the first place was Moscow - up to 31,6%, and Russia - 27,9%.

On the I All-Russia Congress of Pediatricians (1912) in St. Petersburg report GN. Speranskii of the hospital for infants has caused great interest among the participants of the Congress. In November 1922. GN. Speransky, together with the department manager of the Maternity and Child Health of the People's Commissariat of VP. Lebedev organized a National Research Institute of Maternity and Infancy (GNIOMM), and publication <of the Journal for the Study of Early Childhood>. In 1923, Mr.. GN. Speransky rank of professor and was approved by the Director of the Institute.

It was during these years laid the foundation of maternal and child. Only for 2,5 years in the country was opened 567 nurseries, 108 homes of mothers and children, 197 children's consultations, 108 dairy kitchens, 267 houses baby.

VP. Lebedeva (1920), . Speaking at the III All-Union Congress on Maternal and Child Welfare said: <not a story that gave us the protection of motherhood and childhood, . and we carried the blood of his heart and sap their nerve, . we, . really, . on the bare ground and the mud brought up our maternity and infancy,
. We are in our overall poverty, with almost complete absence of cultural workers coped with the infant mortality and it has decreased almost by half>.

GN. Speranski paid much attention to the publishing activities. On his initiative <Journal for the Study of Early Childhood> has been merged with the <Journal of Child and Adolescent Health>. In 1934, Mr.. magazine called <Soviet pediatrics>, and from 1937. - <Pediatrics> and for 47 years, GN. Speranski was its chief editor.

For 40 years, GN. Speranski collaborated on publishing the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, and in the Great Soviet medical encyclopedia was the editor of pediatric section, and the author of several articles.

At the IV All-Union Congress of Pediatricians (1927) GN. Speranski deliver a keynote address <Methods of rational-feeding>.

. Under his leadership, developed problems such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, gastro-intestinal tract, rickets, pleural (allergic) diathesis and purulent skin diseases.

. In the clinic GN
. Speranskii in 20-ies was open house for infants with surgical pathology, which began working prof. SD. Ternovskii, who later became the largest children's surgeon in the country and made a major contribution to the organization of surgical care for children.

In connection with the great scientific and public activity GN. Speranski left the post of Director GNIOMM, but continued to lead the Department of Pediatrics Institute and the Department of Childhood Illness. It was in this office in 1932. was organized by the Department of diseases in young children at the Central Institute of Advanced Medical, which was headed by GN. Speranski.

In our history, not so many examples where, after a hiatus scientific institution once again led the former head of. That's happened to the GN. Speransky, who became director of the Institute of Pediatrics Academy of Medical Sciences, which was transformed GNIOMM.

Considerable attention GN. Speranski paid work pediatric societies of the RSFSR and the USSR. After the sudden death of Chairman of the All-Union Society of Pediatricians Professor. AA. Kissel in 1938. Acting Chairman of the Society for 24 years served GN. Speranski.

GN. Speranski possessed a tireless capacity for work, actively engaged in physical exercise, physical labor, like turning and carpentry, stitching shoes, weaving baskets.

Scientific, educational, social activity GN. Speransky was highly appreciated: from 1934. He - Honored Worker of Science in 1943. elected a corresponding member of USSR Academy of Sciences in 1944. - A member of Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor (1957) and awarded the Lenin Prize (1970).

Authority GN. Speranskii high not only in our country. He was an honorary member of the Scientific Society of Pediatric. Purkinje in Czechoslovakia, a board member of the Soviet-Czechoslovak friendship, as well as an honorary member of scientific societies of pediatricians Bulgaria and Poland.

In 1950, Mr.. participated in the 2-nd All-Union Conference of the peace, in 1952. elected as a member of the International Conference respite child protection.

Knowing the French, German, English and Czech languages, GN. Speranski constantly exchanged correspondence and scientific information with foreign counterparts. He was an active member of the editorial board of the international refereed journal.

GN. Speranski - an outstanding figure of domestic Pediatrics - have lived a large, bright and hard life. Undoubtedly, the state system of protection of motherhood and childhood in our country has become a reality thanks to people like GN. Speransky. George Nesterovich died January 14, 1969, Mr.. 96 th year of life. Numerous students and followers GN. Speranskii in Russia and outside the sacred memory of his revered teachers, educators, mentor.


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