STERN Lina( Scientific)
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Biography STERN Lina
August 12, 1952, Mr.. was executed sentence to members of the Jewish Antifascist Committee. They shot all but ... Left behind three and a half years he spent in prison. She gave life, but was sent to Camp. What happened? However, in order.
Lina Shtern was born August 26, 1878, Mr.. in Libau (both in Russian called the Latvian city of Liepaja, a member of Courland province of Russia). Father was engaged in commerce, the mother raised the children, whose family were seven. From 1888 to 1895. Lina studied in a very good school, where instruction was in German. "Stern" in German - "Star". For a clear and profound mind Lina called "clever asterisk. Subsequently, the "star" has become one of the brightest stars in the history of not only domestic but also the world science.
Lina dreams of becoming a country doctor. Later in the autobiographical notes, she writes: "At first I was attracted to medicine not as a science, as well as a philanthropic opportunity". And she was very fond of music and dance (she danced beautifully). Therefore, besides she wanted to get medical and theatrical education - to become a professional dancer. Years later, she was already a noted scholar in the dance will find rest from the strenuous work. Many, . probably, . know the formula-joke Albert Einstein, . which determines the success of man in promoting the career ladder: Y = A + B + C, . where Y - success - depends on A - the ability to work, . C - the ability to relax and C - the ability to keep their mouths shut,
. Lina from a young age she could work just fine, it is interesting to rest, but with the ability to keep quiet was worse, however, as with most of the great author's formula. Honest and brave man, it is sometimes said what others preferred to keep mum. This was even when she was in Stalin's prisons ...
Entered the Medical Faculty of Moscow University Lina failed because of the then existing restrictions for people who are not Orthodox faith. Then she went to Switzerland and entered the University of Geneva. In German it is an excellent knowledge of several foreign languages, including French. She settled in a house where the family lived GV. Plekhanov, whose wife organized a board. In Lina Solomonovna for many years have established good relations with his wife and daughters Plekhanov. After a short time, and Lina knew many Russian political refugee engaged in Geneva science. One of the colorful figures was, of course, Aleksei Nikolaevich Bach, who played a crucial role in the scientific fate Lina Stern.
Studying at the University of Geneva, Lina seriously interested in scientific work. Her attention was attracted by the physiology. At the 4 th year it conducted its first pilot study and published a scholarly article on the internal secretion of the kidneys (1902). Soon after she successfully completed one more experimental work - to investigate the motor function of the ureters. In 1903, Mr.. Lina brilliantly defended her dissertation. She was awarded the university prize.
Certified Physician Lina Stern returns home to Russia. But ... she had to undergo the examination again at Moscow University, to get a "domestic" medical degree. When she is seeking for a place a medical practitioner, from Geneva received a letter from Professor G. Prevost, who invited her to work as an assistant to the chair of physiology. Delighted and flattered by Lina agrees. Her intelligence and hard work, . the ability to quickly and deeply penetrate into the essence of scientific problems, . ability to keep simple and dignified, . calm and humor in difficult circumstances, a matter of respect and sympathy with the highly intellectual, . with the Puritan tradition of professors and teachers of the University of Geneva,
. Was such a case: in the family Prevost appeared extremely tense. His son and assistant to the work of F. Battelli ill. Being a hypochondriac, and not always balanced, he announced that he was dying and wanted to say goodbye to family and friends. The room had gathered quite a lot of people. All upset and confused. Lina came just at a time when Battelli began to demand that lifted him from bed. "Help me, help me get up - he asked. - Let everyone see that the Romans die standing ". Lin, quickly assessed the situation, calmly but very firmly said: "All clear. I can see how the Italians play out comedy. Then said goodbye and quickly left the room. Death Battelli "undo".
Prevost, Battelli, and a young assistant Lina Stern conducting research on the physiology of respiration, muscle, heart, brain. Stern takes part in international congresses of physiologists, visited the laboratory of the leading physiologists of France, Belgium, Germany. Increasing our scientific outlook, it - that belongs only to gifted natures - preserves the ability of generalized, philosophical approach to scientific problems. Recall that even with 17-18 years Stern was familiar with the classic works of German philosophers.
In 1904. Battelli and Stern began to study the biological oxidation. In the future, these works have received wide recognition. Lina Stern not only became one of the leading scientists of Europe, but gained worldwide fame. Since 1906. Assistant Professor Stern begins reading course of lectures on physiological chemistry, which over time will be called the biochemistry. At the IX International Congress of Physiologists (Holland, 1913), she made a presentation on "The value of oxides in the mechanism of tissue respiration". Outstanding German biochemist Carl Neyberg suggested that a young scientist from Russia paves new paths in science. "If L. Stern, - he emphasized - nothing else is done, except for the opening oxides, it has only one, she won a place of honor in biochemistry".
By 1917, Mr.. Stern - the author of more than 40 original works on the biological oxidation. In the same year she published an article about the presence in extracts of certain tissues of animals of biologically active substances - metabolites, which have both a vasodilator and sosudosuzhayuschee action. In 1917, Mr.. Lina received the title of professor. She became the first woman professor at the University of Geneva and one of the few female professors in Europe. And when the University of Geneva organized a new chair of physiological chemistry, it was headed by Professor Lina Stern. Within a few years (1917-1921) Stern and her staff conduct experiments to study the central nervous system and get some interesting results.
As a scholar of large scale, Stern dreamed of a large scientific teams, able to develop its ongoing research. Increasingly, it turns thoughts to Russia. So when in 1924. AN. Bach officially invited her to head the department of physiology in the 2 nd Medical Institute, she immediately agreed.
March 31, 1925, Mr.. Lina came to Moscow. This day she considered a landmark in the circle of friends and colleagues to the annual observance of it as a day of his second birthday. Although Stern did not have art lecturer, but the interest of students to courses of physiology, which she read, no doubt, was a huge. Therefore, many recorded in its scientific society. Often the exam between her and an assistant arose "controversy" about the knowledge charge. And then the professor said: "It is important not just his specific knowledge of how understanding the essence of the subject. We talked, and I saw that friend knows how to think well, and this is important "
. One can only wonder at the scale of, . talent and performance outstanding scientist: Professor 2 of the First Moscow Medical Institute (1925-1948) while Director of the Institute of Physiology Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929-1948), headed by Department of Biochemistry Institute of Infectious Diseases,
. I.I. Mechnikov (since 1926); organizes and chairs the Research Institute of Physiology. It created a Department of Developmental Physiology at the Institute of Maternity and Child. In 1935 alone. published 45 (!) scientific works ... In 1933. Stern was awarded the title of Doctor of Biological Sciences, in 1934, the first of women scientists - the honorary title of Honored Worker of Science and in 1939. the first of the women scientists of the Soviet Union, she was elected a member of the USSR in the department of biological sciences. Concerning this event the greatest Russian scientist VI. Vernadsky, said: "For the first time in the past, women academics - Stern. I think deservedly so ".
During the Great Patriotic War, all activities Stern was aimed at assisting the wounded. Lina establishing training surgeons in the hospitals had developed a method of treatment of shock. In 1943, Mr.. Stern was awarded the State Prize of the USSR, and in 1944. She was elected a member of the Academy of Medical Sciences. After the war (1949) for a new method of treatment of tuberculous meningitis by intracranial administration of streptomycin, through which thousands of children have been rescued, Stern received a copyright certificate. After the XV International Physiological Congress, . which Stern spoke with three reports, . reflecting the main directions of work of the Institute of Physiology and Department of Physiology 2 nd Moscow Medical Institute, . terms of its research has expanded considerably,
. At the initiative of Lina Solomonovna began a systematic study of fundamental biological problems such as sleep and longevity, while it advanced his own concept of these phenomena.
There were cases where scientific concepts Stern were sharp and unjustified criticism. Being not only a talented scientist, but also controversial, with its fighting spirit, it convincingly and consistently defended its scientific outlook. But in 1950, when the critics up in arms against her again, to answer his opponents Stern was unable. On January 28, 1949. department head of Physiology 2 nd Moscow Medical Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences and Academy of Medical Sciences, a member of the Jewish Antifascist Committee, Lina Shtern, was arrested and before July 1952. without trial was in prison.
In the documentary novel about the repressions 30-50-ies. "Charged with blood" A. Borschagovsky wrote: "More and more investigators, attempts to bring down Stern with her calm tone changing faces dopytchikov. But nobody will be able to knock her out of a rut. Rule of her life, her salvation, her knight's armor - the directness and truth ". Stern wrote: "... Advances in science should not remain a secret from mankind: particularly extensive connections I had with the staff of the British, Australian, Danish, Belgian and Romanian embassies ..."
. 74-year-old academician Lin Stern, was sentenced to death, which, as we already know, was replaced by five years of deportation to Central Asia, in g
. Jambul (1952-1953). But then again intensive work: in the 1954-1968 g. Stern, in charge of the Department of Physiology Institute of Biophysics, USSR Academy of Sciences. 1960. brought good news: Geneva University awarded her an honorary doctorate.
Renowned scholar Lina Stern was not "blue stocking". She has followed the fashion and felt that older and even old women should wear bright young. Lina enjoyed the attention of men, but of their affections spoke sparingly and then only to close people. Her niece E.B. Bashkirov remembered as the aunt with bitter irony told that one day she even came close to marriage. But when her chosen successor, said: "Well, Lina, we will soon get married and then you will be able to quit my job ...", Linus replied:" Then, my dear, we will never get married ". She is firmly of the opinion, which expressed more Kant: Work - the best way to enjoy life.
HORSES. Stern died on March 7, 1968, Mr.. They buried her in the Novodevichy cemetery in Moscow.
Time does not stand still. As the years and decades. And we are all trying to understand and explain what happened then - a long way in 1952: why Stern escaped execution. In the story "Charged blood" A. Borschagovsky wrote: "At the risk of mistakes, I give my suggestion. Grace Stalin I explain it has heightened fears of death, a tendency to believe in miracles ... On the opening Lina Stern was legendary. Hardly any of the non-experts could guess, . that stands for the terms "humoral regulation of physiological processes" or "blood-brain barrier" - that's rumored, . that Academician Lina Stern came to the solution of longevity, . inhibition of the aging process ... ",
|Rachel Friar for STERN Lina
|It was written so poorly that I could barely understand any of it.