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Fonvizin Pavel Ivanovich

( Scientific)

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Biography Fonvizin Pavel Ivanovich
(1746-1803)
Director of the University: 1784-1796 gg.

Fonvizin family of German origin: their ancestor Baron Berndt was captured in the Livonian War by Ivan the Terrible and remained in Russia, and his grandsons went to Orthodoxy. Fonvizin stolnik grandfather served in the late XVII century., . father, . Ivan Andreevich (b. 1705), . consisted of the Audit Board, . had a house in Moscow next to the university and 500 serfs, . was (by the remark eldest son, . known writer DI Fonvizin) man "big sound russudka, . had no case to enlighten myself teaching.,

. Ten years Paul Fonvizin was enlisted soldier in the Semenov regiment, in the meantime, his older brother Dennis went to school at Moscow University in the first year of its establishment (1755)
. In 1762, Mr.. successfully graduated from a university course and is already in the non-commissioned ranks was seconded from his regiment at the disposal of Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the same year were related to Fonvizin Argamakovymi: younger sister, Pavel Ivanovich Theodosia married Basil - son of director of the Moscow University of Alexei Mikhailovich Argamakova.

. Five years is riding on Fonvizin States of Europe as a courier
. In 1772. located in the Russian army before the conclusion in 1774. Kuchuk Kainarji. in 1781, Mr.. he - friend of the Moscow governor, in 1782, Mr.. - Chairman of the Moscow Chamber of criminal court. 6 th July 1784, Mr.. was introduced in a university conference as a director. Fonvizin represents a new type of university administrator - he studied at the university, measured his adolescence and youth, university time ". Surrounding his followers in this category: Director of IP Turgenev, rectors JA Chebotarev, PI Strakhov, A.A.Antonsky-Prokopovich.

Fonvizin main concern was the construction of the magnificent home of the University of Moss. In 1784, Mr.. were already two symmetrical side wings. August 23, 1786, Mr.. Fonvizin after curator MM Kheraskov put your stone in the foundation of the future of the central building. For seven years, construction continued under the direction of the architect M. Kazakov and supervision of the Director. Distinctive feature of the new building was its functionality: the audience, a library, museum, living room, the dining room - everything was thought out, is permeated with the spirit of "statehood" and submitted to the idea of enlightened education and conscious subjects. In the right wing of the Metropolitan of Moscow Platon consecrated and built by the architect Claude painted chapel. For the organization of the university choir director, invited the best specialists.

The university unfolded naturally-research: in 1791. organized the department of experimental physics (PI Strakhov) and Applied Mathematics (MI Pankevych). Built Museum of Natural History. However, approaching reaction: 31 January 1795, Mr.. on charges of insulting the Christian religion removed from his teaching and expelled follower Kantianism Professor. IV Melmann. A year later, issued a decree on the limitation of freedom of the press and the prohibition of private "free" printers.

With great warmth belonged to the university's director of youth, Radel on its moral and physical development. The meeting continued to operate the university pets. Gradually, debug, and overgrown with the traditions of student life. In the custom of the students was to assist school students in homework. Since spring begins "military exercises": under the guidance of "officers" of pupils, students were divided into companies and taught drill and arms drill bearing. Fall in the presence of the commandant of the Moscow staged review of the university "funny battalion.

. In the winter, at Christmas, to everyone's satisfaction appeared encouraged by the director of the university theater, playing the comedy, musical performances and even the opera
. At Shrovetide were masked with an invitation to the authorities, professors, teachers and relatives.

On Sundays, going to concerts and dances. Sometimes school students happened to participate in the fist-fights against the seminary or pupils Theological Seminary (students, as having received the sword, should have "conduct themselves honorably and avoid such merrymaking).

In 1796, Mr.. Fonvizin left the University. In 1801, as a member of the Senate, dismissed by the disease with the public service with the rank of the actual state councilor.

Ever since high school bench Fonvizin showed a tendency to literary work. Some of his works published in various journals of the second half of XVIII century.

Buried Paul Fonvizin in Moscow at the Donskoy Monastery cemetery.

In. Remarchuk


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