BRATSLAVETS Petr Fedorovich( Father of Space TV)
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Biography BRATSLAVETS Petr Fedorovich
PF Bratslavets was born April 11, 1925, Mr.. Odessa. Like most members of his generation, fought in the Great Patriotic War. For participation in hostilities has been awarded medals "For the Defense of the Caucasus" and "For Victory over Germany".
Been discharged from the Army in 1948. He came to work at the Leningrad Research Institute-380 (now the Research Institute for TV). In 1950, Mr.. graduated from the All-Union Correspondence Institute of Electrical.
My Conversion Peter Fedorovich in space occurred in 1957. was to some extent accidental. In that year, SRI-380 received an order for production of television equipment, which was supposed to transmit to Earth photographs of the lunar surface. The works were entrusted to 13-mu (rocket) Division of the Institute. Bratslavets at this time busy creating television systems for the needs of military aviation. In July, the protection of preliminary design showed that the proposed technical solution does not allow to transmit a signal to Earth - was too great a distance.
Togdato Bratslavets and expressed the idea that defined the future direction and work on space television, and his own destiny. He suggested using the system malokadrovogo televideniya.Eto had an intuitive assumption, not supported by any practical results. Yes, and how then could take the results, when the first artificial Earth satellite was still only in draft. As often happens, the initiative has been "penalized". It Bratslavtsu and were assigned to work on equipment "Yenisei".
Two years photocomplexes "Yenisei" (or, as he was known in narrow circles, "bath and laundry Trust") was prepared. The equipment was a camera with two lenses, which carried out the shooting with an automatic change of exposure. After shooting the film been received in the automatic processing, where it was shown, was recorded, and is preparing to transfer images to Earth. Until the last moment, many were convinced that the whole thing will collapse. Most likely, the skeptics were not allowed to install equipment at the station. But Sergei Korolev kakto immediately believe Bratslavtsu and not mistaken. The equipment worked perfectly, and on earth has been adopted by the first photo of the back side of the Moon. For this work, Peter Fedorovich Bratslavets was awarded in I960, Mr.. Lenin Prize.
Another work Bratslavtsa, which can also be regarded as a landmark, was to create a "Gyrfalcon" for transmission to Earth television images from onboard manned spacecraft. Personnel who were able to see the audience throughout the world during the flight of Yuri Gagarin, this equipment is transferred. Since then cosmovision "(incidentally, the name itself was" invented "as Bratslavtsom) has become an indispensable application for all communication sessions with astronauts. The cameras, installed on board the first of the East, send them pictures of the astronauts to scan at 100 lines. Very quickly the equipment was improved, and she has come to replace broadcast television, is used today.
Among other interesting ideas put forward Bratslavtsom I should mention his offer of accommodation on board satellite communications television cameras that would broadcast the image of the earth's surface. The idea was born when the first domestic communications satellite Molniya-1 "has functioned in orbit. Bratslavets suggested that further add to its board TV cameras. Not surprisingly, the proposal was met with the creators of the satellite with hostility because of the possible appearance vzaimopomeh while working repeater equipment and television cameras. Nevertheless, Bratslavtsu unconvinced and S. Korolev, and the then Minister of Radio VD Kalmykov, resulting in a Molniya-1, launched into space April 25, 1966, was installed TV equipment. It worked fine the first time in the world of earthlings appeared on the screen image of the Earth as a whole, and all were able to see firsthand that the Earth is round
. By delivering a bold and unusual idea of placing cameras on the relay satellite, . Bratslavets proposed to place on vehicles, high-telekameramy for the needs of meteorology and early warning of ballistic missiles - despite the views of skeptics, . that sensitivity cameras is not enough for observation of such heights,
. How he came to this conclusion, based on what his confidence in the correctness of the chosen solution, he himself could not explain. Just was convinced of this, and all. To prove the correctness of the conclusions Bratslavtsa could only practice. Start of the first satellites in highly elliptical orbits result did not bring. The device failed to stabilize, and the camera could not capture a controlling start of an intercontinental ballistic missile from Plesetsk in the direction of Kamchatka. But during the second run Bratslavtsa idea found its brilliant confirmation - on the transmitted images to Earth in real time is clearly visible flame from operating engine ballistic missile.
All the remaining years of Peter Fedorovich dedicated work on the systems of missile attack warning systems (EWS). However, work wear, constant stress, which occurred not only in solving technical problems, but more often when communicating with his superiors led to what in 1978. reasons of health he had to resign from his post as head of the 31 st Division of NIIT. At the same time he "left" and of the main designers of space-based television systems. But before the end of his days Bratslavets continued to work in their own institute, which gave the fifty years of life.
Peter Fedorovich was not only an outstanding scientist but also an interesting person. As a true Odessa, well told anecdotes, he could sing, to dance. Companions noted that he had a gift suggestion. This was especially true of customers. Often they do not quite understand what they said Bratslavets, but believed him. And, as events showed, did not in vain.
PF Bratslavets - the author of three books, more than 50 scientific articles. He has numerous inventions. He was an academician of the International Academy of Astronautics, had the title of "Honorary radio operator" and "Honored Worker of the Ministry of Industry of communication".
Peter Fedorovich buried in St. Petersburg in the North Cemetery. At the funeral, some of his colleagues said that today are buried not only his father's space television, but also the outer television. They are right or not - time will tell.