Zasyadko Alexander D.( Russian expert in the field artillery and missile technology, Lieutenant-General)
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Biography Zasyadko Alexander D.
Zasyadko Alexander D. (1774-1837) - Russian expert in the field artillery and missile technology, Lieutenant-General (1829). In 1797 he graduated from the Artillery and Engineering Gentry Cadet Corps. In 1815 began work on creating military gunpowder rockets. Constructed a military rockets and three calibers, developed a technology for their manufacture, a launch machine, allowing to volley fire (6 missiles), and devices for the guidance. Held a large number of firings of missiles and reached their range of 2300 m. Developed recommendations for selecting optimal parameters of missiles, . determine their range and dispersion depending on the angles of launch, . considered the possibility and efficiency of launching missiles ligament, . methods of transportation and combat use of rockets,
. He organized the production of missiles in a special 'rocket institution', forming the first in the Russian army missile unit. The results of 3asyadko outlined in the work 'On the matter of missiles and incendiary rekoshetnyh' (1817), which is the first fairly complete instruction on manufacturing and combat use of missiles in the Russian army. Name 3asyadko named a crater on the Moon.
Years of life
1779 - on the picturesque banks of the river Psyol, in the village Lutenko Gadyach County Poltava province born Alexander Zasyadko.
He was descended from the nobility Little Russia ", and the genus Zasyadko has its origin from the Cossacks of Zaporozhye Sech. His father, Dmitri Zasyadko, at one time held the post of county treasurer in Perekop and was accepted (despite the modest state) in the second part of the pedigree books nobles Poltava Province. He died and was buried in Perekop.
Dmitry Zasyadko had two sons: Alexander and Daniel. Daniel D. Zasyadko, becoming later an artillery officer, was promoted in 1826 to the rank of Major General, was awarded medals for distinguished career and led the weapons factory in Tula.
1789 - Alexander and Daniel are defined in the Artillery and Engineering Gentry Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg. Before that they were educated at home and studied the Psalter, as was the custom in the Ukraine.
Some tongue-tied from birth to Alexander had a lot to study independently. In the case Alexander gained thorough knowledge of artillery and fortification, stronger physically. In other sciences, and languages, he improved, when he was an officer, giving all this free time, I read a lot.
1797 - Brothers Zasyadko released from the body of Second Lieutenant of artillery in the 10 th Battalion, stationed in the province of Kherson.
1799 - Alexander and Daniel begin their combat history in Northern Italy. While all of Europe came to the excitement caused by the Great French Revolution. Emperor Paul I of Russia sent troops under the command of Field Marshal Suvorov "to save the Kings".
Within two months of continuous fighting, Alexander often took part in the melee, three times a horse killed under him, double shoot shako. For one successfully conducted the battle, Alexander Zasyadko receives praise from the field marshal, and for the courage shown in the capture of the fortress Mantua, Alexander Suvorov makes it to the rank of captain.
1804 - 1806 - Brothers Zasyadko along with a squadron of Vice Admiral D.N. Senyavin participate in the landings on the Ionian Islands (Corfu and Tenedos). And here is awarded bravery Alexander Zasyadko - he was awarded the Order.
1807 - 1822 - Zasyadko brothers fought against the Turks. Their bravery remember the Turkish fortress of Izmail, Turtukay and Ruschuk.
1812 - 1814 - Alexander and Daniel participate in campaigns and battles against the French troops. In memory of Alexander of these battles were a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery" and shot in the knee of the left leg. During the battle of Borodino, Alexander Zasyadko fights on the battery General Rajewski.
1813 - in the "Battle of the Nations" at Leipzig Zasyadko Colonel Alexander, commanding the 15-th Guards Brigade, for heroism and distinction is awarded the Order of St. George III class. At that time, only two officers in the entire Russian army - Michaud and Vinspier have this order. This battle is remarkable for Alexander Zasyadko another event ...
1814, January 20 - in France the fate separates brothers. In the battle at the village Shempobar Daniel Zasyadko gets shot in the head and five years is captured.
On his return from France, Alexander Zasyadko brigade stationed in Podolia (region in Ukraine, in 1793 - in the Russia Empire). While in military circles in Russia caused great interest in so-called "kongrevovy missiles.
At the beginning of the XIX century British engineer Col. Kongreyv, acquainted with rockets in India, organized their production in several improved versions in England. English Voiko quite successfully apply them in the wars against Denmark (1804) and France (1807). On a continent known for their application, but the secret production of missiles the British kept secret.
The most successful use of these weapons was held in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig, where the British in the multinational force (Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sweden and others) have sent their missiles against napolenovskih troops.
The effect of which Alexander Zasyadko watched personally, very interested in him, and he set out to equip the Russian army missiles.
1815 - Alexander Zasyadko proceeds to his own work on missile weapons. He sells the rest to him after the death of his father's small estate near Odessa, and some money to equip the laboratory. Experiments succeed, and the secret "kongrevovyh missiles revealed. This Zasyadko repeated the entire path traversed Kongreyvom. He guessed that military rockets are the same as the fireworks. It changes the design of the latter, improving their production and creates a fire-fighting with hand grenades and rocket 2-x, 2.5-and 4-hdyuymovogo caliber. After a large number of firings reached the range of 2300 m..
1817 - Alexander Zasyadko sends a report addressed to the Baron Muller-Zakomelsky describing his invention. Zasyadko ukazyaet at ease, cheapness and extraordinary comfort of transporting rockets, makes recommendations on the application of new weapons in the defense of fortresses and coasts. For the launch of rockets Zasyadko developed a machine of unique design, distinguished from the heavy carriages Kongreyva simplicity and ease.
The report of Colonel Zasyadko reported to the emperor. Alexander I was extremely pleased with the unselfishness of the inventor, who does not even require compensation. The emperor exclaimed: "Thank God there are still officers in the Russian army, which serve as one of the only honor!"
. Zasyadko was sent to Mogilev in our headquarters (in modern terminology - in the main headquarters) Army Field Marshal Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly to demonstrate gunner officers and methods of manufacture and use of new weapons
1818 - for this work and to reward excellent knowledge "on the proposal of Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly, Alexander D. Zasyadko made a major general.
- Zasyadko appointed general on duty 2 Army in Odessa.
summer - his marriage to Elizabeth Maksimovna Gresser, the daughter of Mayor of Odessa city.
November 25 - Alexander Zasyadko receives an imperial order to relocate to St. Petersburg. He was assigned to lead established by Artillery School, as well as management of the St. Petersburg arsenals, pyrotechnic laboratory and the Okhta powder plant.
So before Zasyadko opened a new field of activity, completely changed his life. He and all the heat of the soul is taken for a new job. Initially, school did not have its own premises, and Zasyadko vigorously took up the construction of new buildings.
1822 - on the Neva River at the Foundry Bridge rose body, standing, and still. They housed classrooms, recreation, educational laboratories, a library, dining room for the cadets. Funds allocated for construction, Zasyadko spends very frugally, and saved money for college is seeking the acquisition of physical devices and hundreds of volumes for the library.
Although Zasyadko consisted of several positions, college was his main. Eventually Zasyadko made that the school was considered exemplary. The school had introduced a course of missiles, missile training base established.
Subsequently, in the middle of the nineteenth century, based on the school was formed from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy
. During leadership Okhta gunpowder factory and pyrotechnic laboratory Zasyadko makes a series of inventions:
. a powder mill, which prevented the frequent explosions earlier in the manufacture of gunpowder;
. gun kalibrometr;
. carriage with a gun for defense fortresses
. portable device to move very large-caliber guns and a number of other heavy
Zasyadko is also conducting a number of theoretical research:
properties of metals to improve the quality of castings;
possibility of multiple castings of new tools from old.
April - a fire in a building near the pyrotechnic laboratory and storage of ammunition. Zasyadko personally directed the fire-fighting and evacuation of ammunition. After that, laboratory and warehouse were moved up the Neva, . and Zasyadko, . instead, . to seek the vacant territory for themselves (which, given its excellent service and good acquaintance with the Grand Duke Mikhail might well take place) and secure, . modest officer, . good income, . submits a proposal on the breakdown on this site camps for school and garden,
. That was amazing selflessness of this man!
Arsenal St. Petersburg has also been found in perfect order and became the pride of the artillery department and its leader, the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich Romanov. Arsenal became the indispensable place of visits of high foreign guests who came to Russia's capital.
Family Zasyadko also completely moved to the capital.
1821, Feb. 5 - the birth of first child, Alexandra (named in honor of the Emperor). His vospreemnikom himself became the Grand Duke Mikhail.
Petersburg apartment Zasyadko becomes a meeting place for his military friends - composer AA. Alyabiev, writers, brothers Sergei and Fedor Glinka. Were drawn up a musical-literary evening, where he Zasyadko played music, and his wife sang songs.
April - treatment in the Crimea. Zasyadko awarded the Order of St. Vladimir III degree.
end - Alexander Zasyadko appointed Chief of Staff General feldtseyhmeystera (artillery commander).
1827, January 1 - Zasyadko with indomitable energy is taken as a new post. He holds urgent technical reorganization of artillery, both kinds of troops. He ordered removed from the weapons obsolete "Unicorn" - guns, . appeared in the Russian army in the days of Ivan the Terrible! At the initiative of Zasyadko in St. Petersburg in the Volkov field is created a special "rocket institution" for the industrial production of military missiles,
1828 - the beginning of Russian-Turkish War. Alexander Zasyadko again in the ranks of the army! He fought in Moldavia, Wallachia, is involved in the capture of Russian troops of the Turkish forts Brailov, Varna, noisy.
It organizes in Tiraspol, the production of military missiles and actively apply them in combat. During the war in 1828 there were produced 9745 units.
1829 - for the successful management of the artillery during the war in 1828, Alexander D. Zasyadko is promoted to lieutenant general.
However, health Zasyadko gives serious rift. Old wounds, hard work and, finally, the just completed fifty years of the war crippled General.
In a short time Zasyadko befalls triple stroke (at that time medical terminology - apoplexy).
1830 - Zasyadko gets a long vacation from service.
1831, spring - move to Moscow. Treatment of mineral waters, not brought the success.
October - Zasyadko moved to Kharkov (in 80 miles the estate of his wife). This also resettled and all his family - after the first child of Alexander at Zasyadko was still five sons and two daughters. But stay in Kharkov does not bring better health.
November - Zasyadko travels to the Caucasus water, were considered at that time almost a panacea. But there was no improvement occurs.
April - Alexander D. Zasyadko tendered his resignation.
May - resignation. Ended 37-year-old immaculate service.
The last years of life are in the fight against disease. Zasyadko lives in Kharkov, and continuously for almost hopeless. He almost never leaves the house, where he always is silence. Any sharp sound traumatic brain Zasyadko. Only the closest people and old comrades come to visit him. Only in the clear warm weather Zasyadko walking around with a stick in his hand, wrapped in warm clothes. Passers-by greet him, they know who it. But it's hard to imagine that this sick old man five years ago, fought on the battlefield!
Even as the sick and infirm, Zasyadko wants to be useful for society. It leaves no idea how to facilitate navigation through the rapids Dniprovski.
Spring - collecting all the data is sent to the Zasyadko thresholds, selects and finds a way to facilitate navigation through the machine invented by them. But this trip undermines his last strength.
The last two months are in the fight against the intense suffering. Zasyadko still trying to deal with progressive disease, but his days are numbered.
May 20 - at the request of his Zasyadko transported to Kuryazhsky Monastery.
May 27 - the death of Alexander D. Zasyadko. Descendants remained - Russian artillery, the first military rockets and a crater on the Moon named after him.