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Konstantinov Konstantin

( Russian scientist and inventor in the field artillery, rocket technology, instrumentation and automation, Lieutenant-General)

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Biography Konstantinov Konstantin
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Konstantinov, Konstantin Ivanovich (1818-71) - A Russian scientist and inventor in the field artillery, rocket technology, instrumentation and automation, Lieutenant-General (1864). In 1836 he graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. From 1849 - Commander of the St. Petersburg missile facilities. In 1859-61 read a series of lectures to the officers of artillery missiles. From 1861 he headed stroitelstvomvom Nicholas missile factory, since 1867 - his work, in 1840-44, 1857-58 was abroad, where he studied the state of missile technology. In 1847, built the rocket ballistic pendulum, which determined the variation of the driving force of the rocket in time. With this device Konstantinov investigated the influence of the shape and design of ballistic missiles on its properties, to establish the scientific basis for the calculation and design of rockets. From 1850 to carry out experiments with live missiles in order to increase the range and accuracy fall. Researched issues of optimal parameters of missiles, . ways to stabilize them in flight, . ways of fastening and offices on the trajectory of missile warheads, . formulations of rocket propellants, . Konstantinov paid great attention to improving the technology pro-wah and build rockets, . mechanization and the safety of their manufacturing,
. They established military rocket perfect for the 19 th century design (with a range of 4-5 km), . PU and machines for the production of missiles, . the technological process of making rockets with the use of automatic control and management of individual operations; recommended new ways of missiles in military affairs,
. Suggested a rocket to lift cable in the whaling. Konstantinov - author of papers on various aspects of rocketry, guns, hand guns, fireworks, gunpowder business, aeronautics. Name Konstantinova named a crater on the Moon.

Years of life

1818, the beginning of April - in Warsaw under mysterious circumstances, a boy.

Before it was assumed that Konstantinov came from a merchants' guild 2-j (this version is preserved to this day). Pointed out, and different years of his birth - 1817, 1818, 1819 years. The place of birth also expressed different views: Chernigov province, Russia

. In reality, as established relatively recently, his father was a great prince, Crown Prince Constantine Pavlovich Romanov, the brother and deputy Pп+я¦я¦пTп¦я¦п¦п+пЁп+ Emperor Alexander I in the Polish kingdom, the mother - French actress Clara-Anne de Laurent

At birth the boy was named Konstantin Konstantinov.

His father was a childless in two marriages, so spending a lot of money for the upbringing and education of their children out of wedlock. For example, music lessons, Constantine and his sister, Constance gave the young Chopin, who is often invited for this purpose in the Belvedere - a summer residence of Grand Duke Warsaw.

Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov differed unbalanced, short-tempered character, and his only passion was a passion for military training, exercises and parades.

Family Constantine Pavlovich Romanov circumstances were such that his children, Constance and Constantine considered pupils (foster children), Prince Ivan Aleksandrovich Golitsyn, the Grand Duke's aide. It is for this reason they have subsequently changed and patronymic.


- During the uprising of the Poles Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov went from Poland to Russia, but on the way cholera.
- The death of Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov in Vitebsk. Prince Golitsyn, along with 13-year-old Constantine and de Laurent grounded in St. Petersburg.
. 1834 January - doing the will of the late Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov, Prince Golitsyn defines a 15-year-old Constantine cadet in the prestigious School of Artillery

It was founded in 1820 at the suggestion of another of the Romanov dynasty - the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, the brother of Alexander (Emperor Alexander I), and Constantine Pavlovich Nicholas (the future Emperor Nicholas I). It took, as a rule, young men of noble descent. In order not to disclose the secret origin of Constantine and to arrange training at public expense, Prince Golitsyn wrote it down as a son of the merchant guild 2-nd.

Studied Konstantin Konstantinov bad, was "the fourth in the list". After a 2-hletnego learning he was left at the school for further improvement in the higher sciences ".

1838 - the final issue in the rank of lieutenant.

1840 - trip of 4 years abroad for collection of useful information relating to the artillery ". Konstantinov has visited many European countries - Austria-Hungary, Britain, Belgium, Holland, Prussia, France.

During this trip Konstantinov made his first invention - elektroballichesky device. In his creation of the young officer helped W. Wheatstone, one of the owners of the London factory of musical instruments and inventor of the physical devices (Wheatstone bridge!) And grandson of the famous French engineer and watchmaker AL. Breguet - Louis Breguet, the owner of the factory precise mechanisms in Paris.

1844 - after returning to Russia Konstantin feel (it was shaped during his trip) setting for measuring the velocity of an artillery shell. However, later it led to a scientific conflict between him and the recent assistants - Wheatstone and Breguet, trying to ascribe the glory of the inventors themselves. Konstantinov very diplomatically, but confidently parried their claims and retains the history of science and technology a priority of Russia in the application of "galvanism" in ballistic research. As commander of the School of masters and apprentices powder, . Selitrennoe and sulfur in the case Okhta gunpowder factory (later - fireworks School), . Konstantinov has made several improvements in the technique of fireworks - prorubnye banners, . pyrotechnic photometer, . way to compare forsovyh compositions, . new form of parachute flares for a number of other,

1846 - 1847 - Constantine begins to engage in systematic studies of missile technology, and his first contribution in this area was indeed a pioneer - a missile ballistic pendulum to measure the traction motor powder. For comparison - known at that time, the French explorer artillery Morin measured this parameter is a primitive dynamometer, and the "father" of the Austrian military rockets Baron Augustin - with the help of conventional lever scales with weights!

. When the captain Konstantinov acquainted him with the scheme of its installation, the Baron exclaimed (in German): "Sie sind dort begonnen, wo ich zu beenden hatte!" (in Russian translation: "You started with what I had to finish!")

Bitter irony of history: 80 years later, already in the twentieth century, Zander, probably not knowing about the invention Konstantinova, measured the thrust of its rocket engine again with the help of lever weights!..

Pendulum Konstantinov was built on the missile testing range on the Volkov Field in St. Petersburg and tested in the presence of members of the Military Scientific Committee. He was highly appreciated for its accuracy and ease of computation

. Fact, . technique to study the vnutriballisticheskih rocket motor with pendulum Konstantinov - the prototype of modern fire tests! For many years the pendulum Konstantinova remained the most perfect instrument for the study of traction parameters of a rocket engine,
. Its principle and constructive scheme used in 100 years at the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the study of specific impulse produced in the late 40-ies of XX century Russian rocket engines, solid fuel. Again, one can only express surprise at the zigzags of history of science: if the genius of Zander, a long time working on missile technology at home, knew about the progress made in Russia before!

. 1850, March 5 - Imperial Order is appointed commander Colonel Konstantinov Petersburg missile facilities, Russia's first industrial plant for the production of military missiles
. Founded it was back in 1826, but by the mid-nineteenth century, fell into decline. One of the activities Konstantinov was improving production, especially improving the manufacturing technology of military rockets.

While the stability of the energy characteristics of black powder was determined by the constancy of its chemical composition, in other words, the uniformity of the mixture, which could be achieved by thoroughly mixing the components. Before Konstantinova mixing the powder produced in meshalnyh "barrels with the horizontal axis of rotation with manual transmission (offered in 1820-ies aq. Zasyadko). But these drums often been the cause of explosions and fires, as they for better grinding components poured copper bullets, which, under certain conditions cause the appearance of sparks.

1855 - Konstantinov offers barrels inclined axis of rotation. They better mixing occurs, and the power strokes copper bullets, one of the other was significantly less.

1853 - 1855 - Rocket institution produced several thousand military rockets for the needs of the Crimean War on technology Konstantinova, for which he was declared a "royal favor".

1853 - Colonel Konstantinov puts in Artillery magazine article shall "device, preparation and use of balloons". Start Konstantinova as a researcher-balloonist!


September - Konstantinov was sent to Revel with a team rocket to protect the coast against a possible landing of enemy airborne
. November 21 - at St. Petersburg missile institution reassignment artillery lieutenant Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (again the paradox of history, . on this occasion memorable - Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France also began military service in the first officer's rank in the artillery! ..),
. Throughout 1856 the great Russian writer was often a guest of the Konstantinova house N 38 on Razyezzhaya Street.
1856 - Konstantinov publishes detailed work "Balloon", which for the first time in the Russian press describes the history of this field of science.

In this article, first in the world considered the idea of rocket engines for traffic control balloon.

1857 - in the "Sea collection Konstantinov publishes the work of analyzing all the proposals related to scuba diving, including those proposed by the famous Russian engineer general-adjutant K.A. Schilder, fired live missiles in the world's first complete metal submarine

. 1850-s, . end - Konstantinov busy drafting a new improved rocket factory, . invention of highly mechanized and automated equipment for him, . finding new optimal design of military rockets and improve their production technology,

The work was crowned with success - the project was approved, Constantine himself appointed "head of the manufacture and use of" military rockets in rusц¬a Army.

1860 - Konstantinov taught a course on military rockets in the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy.

1861 - lectures Konstantinova published in Paris in French.

1864 - publication of lectures in France already in the Russian translation. At that time it was the only one in the world the fundamental monograph on the topic. The book was praised in scientific circles, including the Paris Academy of Sciences. The author receives a prize from the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy.

1850-s, end - 1860, Home - Konstantinov repeatedly travels to France to assist plant equipment. Meanwhile, Russia has not even chosen the place to build a factory. In the end, Konstantinov chose the city Nikolaev (specifically - in the south of Russia, as the climate of St. Petersburg forced to heating, the rocket establishments "furnaces with open fire).

While in Russia there have been significant political changes. Emperor Alexander II and the new military leadership of the State made active efforts to eliminate the causes of the Crimean catastrophe - Russia's defeat in the Crimean War - in particular, the backlog of the country in military technology. But this led to a contradiction - to replace the old smoothbore heavy guns, to whom military rockets had an undoubted advantage, came rifled artillery, much more accurate and rapid -. In comparison with her missile technology, a relatively new kind of arms, not having yet to take a lasting place in the military and the public mind, objective had no tangible benefits at the time. In addition, there is evidence that in Europe (in particular, in Austria-Hungary) combat missiles are removed from service.

All this has given rise to Russian summit in doubt the viability and effectiveness of missile weapons in principle. Konstantinov overcomes this major obstacle!


- Konstantinov is a new missile system - 2-hdyuymovuyu militant rocket launcher machine for her and hammer palnik to start. After the approval of top-missile system was put into service of the Russian army. There was recognition of the missile as a necessary and effective supplement to rifled artillery!
. - Konstantinov bear serious examination of special imperial commission gathered to clarify the need to build a new missile factory
1867 - Konstantinov moved to Nikolaev and supervises the construction of a missile factory. His main difference was "teledinamicheskaya a motion" that is, the mechanization and automation of production cycles. Designed Konstantinov special equipment was so perfect that the Spanish government ordered in Paris is the same for its new missile factory in Seville!

. During a life in Nikolaev Konstantinov organized a Branch of the Russian Chemical Society and was elected its first chairman
. He immediately made friends with the intelligentsia of the city and literally conquered all his encyclopedic knowledge, personal charm and ability to unite people around her. He moved to Nikolaev his huge personal library and many devices. Konstantinov published in "Nicholas Gazette series of articles:

. "On the organization of military companies"
. "On the improvement of the national food of Russia in the economic and hygienic respect"
. "Improving supply Nicholas Market and several other
1870, the end - the building of the plant is almost completed, the equipment being installed. But to live up to its opening Konstantinov was not able to.


the night of January 12 - Konstantin Konstantinov died. The plant was opened without him. Until 1906, when he was transferred to Shostka, the plant produces combat, signaling, lighting and rescue rocket.
January 14 - Konstantinova ashes buried in the village Nivnoe Mglinskogo County Chernigov Province (that's when again Golitsyn worked created a legend about the origin Konstantinova!). Now this village is a part Surazh district of the Bryansk region. In the church of this village was furnished family vault Konstantinov.
Time, unfortunately, did not spare no name Konstantinova, nor even his ashes. For a long time his name as if it took from the front edge of Russia's science, so that even the next generations of outstanding scientists working in the field of rocketry and space science, not everyone knew about already made Konstantinov. We have already mentioned this

. And during the Civil War in Russia (1918 - 1921 years), . when under the slogans of the negation of the old society and relentless class struggle being ruined aristocratic estates, and even tombs (often the only memory of the outstanding people of Russia!), . Reds broke crypt Konstantinov and threw the remains into the street,
. Only later they were buried by local residents already twenty paces from the church, where lie still.

During the Second World War the church was completely destroyed. Collapsed dome slept a broken vault ...

That's all about the Russian officer, scientists and engineers, one of the founders of the first samples of missile technology.

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