Friedrich Zander Arturovich( Soviet scientist and inventor in the field of the theory of interplanetary flight, jet engines and aircraft)
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Biography Friedrich Zander Arturovich
(1887-1933) - Soviet scientist and inventor in the field of the theory of interplanetary flight, jet engines and aircraft. In 1914 he graduated from Riga Polytechnic Institute. The problems of jet movement started in 1908. His attention was attracted by the issues of designing the spacecraft, the choice of driving force, how to clean the atmosphere on the spacecraft, etc.. In 1909 he first expressed the idea that as the fuel is expedient to use elements of the design of interplanetary spacecraft, and in 1917 begin a systematic study of the problems of rocket and space science and technology. In 1921, Zander presented a report on the project interplanetary spaceship airplane at Moscow provincial conference of inventors. In 1924, published in the journal 'Engineering and the life' story 'Flights to other planets', . in which he outlined his basic idea - a combination of missiles with the aircraft for takeoff from the ground and the subsequent burning of the aircraft in flight as fuel in the chamber of the rocket engine to increase the missile range,
. In the same year, Zander developed the idea of using the Moon or incidental planets (their gravitational and electromagnetic field or atmospheric) to increase the speed of flight to other planets, . and the idea of planning a descent spacecraft with inhibition in the atmosphere of the planet,
. Since 20-ies. Zander, along with the study of problems of interplanetary travel, developing the theory and calculation engines of spacecraft. He suggested that the design and construction of internal combustion engine, which is not needed in the air, performed a number of theoretical calculations of the efficiency of jet engines of various schemes, including the CSD and the combined RD. Major works on missile Astrodynamics, they were also discussed spacecraft motion in the gravitational field of the sun, planets and their satellites, to determine the trajectories and duration of flights. In 1929-32 Zander has built and tested on compressed air with gasoline engine jet OP-1, in 1933 - LRE RR-2 (for liquid oxygen with gasoline). Developed draft of the engine 10 and the rocket - 'GIRD-X'. Participated in the organization of the Panel Study of Reactive Motion. In 1931-32 was before. GIRD at Osoaviahime. In 1930-31 he taught at the Moscow Aviation Institute. Zander called the name of the memorial room in Riga politekhnich. Institute, a museum space development in Kislovodsk, a street in Moscow, a crater on the Moon
. Years of life and work
. 1887, August 23 - in the family physician in Riga, MD Arthur Konstantinovicha Zander and his wife, the daughter of the Saxon chamberlain and musician Gottschalk, Elena Zander, a boy, his parents named Frederick
. He was the fourth child of the parent family.
1889 - the birth of her sister Helen and his mother's death in childbirth. Children are educated father, who was interested in natural sciences and technology. Born in 1854 in a merchant family, he graduated from Riga provincial gymnasium, then, in 1881 - Dorpat (now Tartu) University. Next to continue his education, he went to Vienna, where he defended his doctoral dissertation, and returned to Riga, and began to practice medicine. That he his arguments about the possible intelligent life on other planets, the boy developed a curious desire to fly to the stars. Father's stories about the flights of Otto Lilienthal and flying kites brought in the boy thought, whether it is possible to make flights to other planets. This thought never left Frederick for life.
The boy liked to read. Father's house was a good library. Especially liked him books on astronomy and science fiction, in particular, the novels of Jules Verne.
1891 - Marriage of his father Bert Avgustovne Conradi, twenty housekeeper, who worked in their house and became a second mother to children. Soon a daughter, Margaret, became his sister earlier born children, and especially close - Frederick.
1894 - Visit AK. Zander in Baku and the Trans-Caspian region of Russia. Brought a unique collection of reptiles and amphibians.
1896 - Friedrich Zander is defined in a private prep school, which offered training for admission to a real school. The three-year course Friedrich overcomes two years (to say the efforts of the father)
1898 - Friedrich Zander enrolled in the first class of the Riga city secondary school to prepare professionals for industry and commerce.
1904, January 30 - death under the train Robert Zehnder, the elder brother of Frederick. The father invites her to live in the house of Walter Konradi, the younger brother's wife.
1905 - Friedrich Zander finishes first real college student. In the latter class of Frederick, on the recommendation of one of the teachers acquainted with the work of Tsiolkovsky "Investigation of outer space rocket appliances". This has strengthened his mind to come to grips with the problem of interplanetary flights.
1905 - Friedrich Zander goes to the first course of the mechanical department of the Riga Polytechnic Institute
. 1905 - 1907 - Frederick leaves from Riga (administration, frightened by the revolution of 1905, temporarily closes Institute), completing the Royal Higher Technical School in Danzig, and only then returns to alma mater
. organization with the participation of the First Zehnder Riga Student Society of aeronautics and technology of flight, whose members staged exhibitions of aircraft, themselves built gliders and promoted the idea of flight to the device is heavier than air
. At the same time, Zander has thought about the problems of space subjects.
September 18 - Friedrich Zander started a special book entitled "Space (air) ships, which will provide communication between the stars. Movement in space. "From that day, he more or less regularly took notes on space topics. Over time, the notebook has grown into a collection of the greatest scientific works and ideas, and if it was at one time published, it would have brought the young author of world renown. But this did not happen. In addition, Zander has since Danzig, appreciating the benefits that provides the ability to quickly write, made notes in an encrypted form, using a system of shorthand Gabelsbergera. As a result, some records Zehnder not deciphered and still. Zander calculates the value of work to raise the body of a certain mass of a certain height above the Earth's surface, taking into account changes with altitude free fall acceleration, . assesses oxygen supply on board the spacecraft to the viability of one astronaut,
1909 - Zander expresses the idea of the possibility of use as a fuel exhaust parts of the rocket itself.
May - the thought of the possibility of connecting the Earth and Moon rope. Zander makes mathematical calculations, carries out the rope. The idea attracted attention in the 60's, appeared terminology "space elevator". Now in the scientific literature there are many different developments of space tethers and tugs.
June - the idea of using motion of the spacecraft to Earth's magnetic field.
1912, September 18 - Zander comes to proving the potential for the spacecraft to orbit the Sun, using the known types of fuel. The idea was proved yet Tsiolkovsky, but Zander came to this alone! Working on the dynamics of such a flight, Zander previously Tsiolkovsky and Oberth came to a very fruitful idea of dropping the exhaust levels. Only in American rocketry pioneer Robert Goddard, the idea is fixed earlier - in January 1909 (in 1914, Goddard receives a patent for a two-stage solid propellant missile project). Parallel Zander comes to thinking about the possibility of burning waste levels (in general, he expressed this idea back in 1909). Currently, . true, . considered more profitable return expensive rocket stages on Earth, . Although the idea to use as a secondary fuel other metal attracted great interest and is the practical implementation of solid-fuel missiles,
1914 - After graduation Zander comes to the plant Explorer, is an industry giant that time and manufacturing various rubber products. Zander and here remained true to himself - with honors gave him the right to choose place of work and he decided to study the production and properties of rubber, to further apply this knowledge to space needs!
. 1915 - at the front approached the Riga plant with all personnel evacuated to Moscow
. 1915 - 1917 - Zander conducts experiments on the "greenhouse air of ease" or, in modern language, on life-support system
. It grows in a charcoal peas, cabbage and other vegetables.
1919 - Zander goes to work in an aircraft factory "Motor"
1921, the end (according to other sources - the beginning of 1922) - Zander met with the leader of the Bolshevik government VI. Ulyanov-Lenin. Talk about the problems of interplanetary travel. Different can be assessed essence of communist ideology and personal qualities of the leaders of the Bolshevik regime. But the fact that leaves no doubt - life Friedrich Zander emphasized the enormous ideological outlook of its counterparts, the enormous momentum and energy emanating from this man, and how it inspired this conversation. Zander decides to leave the factory and work at home, to quickly solve the problems put before
1922 - 1923 - Friedrich Zander gets a long vacation and working hard at home. In the vacation certificate issued to him, said: "... leave is granted for the drafting of an airplane for the flight from the Earth's atmosphere and the engine to it ". To help the inventor, the factory workers "Motor" was expelled from his salary to his 2-month earnings.
April - Zander delivers a report on interplanetary communications to the collective Gosaviazavoda N 4 behalf M.V. Frunze.
May - a similar report in the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Supreme Economic Council
June 15 - Zander, finished in the main study, returned to the plant. It starts now "battle for hearts and minds" in the hope of winning over new enthusiasts of space.
January - report in the theoretical section of Moscow Society of amateur astronomy.
- Zander submit to the Committee for Inventions authoring application designed for their aircraft rocket (space flight), but is refused. The Committee considers that the project is too fantastic. The flight in the dense layers of the atmosphere should have been done with the help of an airplane with an engine pressure. In sufficiently diluted atmosphere flight should be carried out using liquid-propellant rocket engine, additional fuel which would serve as part of an airplane have become redundant. As a result, the space would divert a relatively small cruise stage, designed for the flight and return to Earth. In space, she had to move under the influence of "solar sails". Draft Zander differed a great economy from the energy point of view: on each leg of the flight was planned to use the most efficient type of engine, and to maximize the aerodynamic quality of the apparatus. Its main idea of this project were published by the author in 1924 in the journal "Engineering and Life". This was the first publication Zander on space topics.
April - report to the Military-Scientific Society of the Academy of Air Fleet behalf N.E. Zhukovsky.
June 20 - Organizational meeting of members of Society for the Study of interplanetary communications.
1,4,5 October - a three-day debate on the problems of interplanetary travel in the audience Physics Institute, Moscow State University.
1924 - 1925 - a series of travel lectures in Leningrad, Ryazan, Tula, Kharkov, Saratov.
1926 October - Zander started work at the Central Design Bureau of the Aviation Trust.
in Moscow on Tverskaya Street, opened the first World Exhibition interplanetary spacecraft and instruments. Exhibits the works of R.H. Goddard, NI. Kibalchicha, D. Obert, FA. Zander, K.E. Tsiolkovsky P. Esnault-Pelterie and other.
Missile problems Zander is still working at home, in off hours. Zander built the first rocket engine OP-1 from an ordinary blow torch. Simultaneously, an engineer-scientist working on theoretical problems of interplanetary flights. He puts the problem:
of the gravitational fields of the Sun and planets to change the speed of the rocket. Now this is called gravitational, or swing-maneuver, and is widely used in practice
. use of solar pressure to ensure the transportation of goods in outer space ( "solar sail")
. life support in space and bumper
. a batch of missiles scheme (implemented in slightly different form in the launch vehicle "Vostok")
. finding energy-optimal trajectories of flights to other planets (now known as the trajectories Homan and modified trajectories Crocco)
. March - the beginning of teaching in Higher Zehnder aeromehanicheskom College (now the Moscow Aviation Institute), formed from the Faculty aeromehanicheskogo MVTU and one of the faculties of the Moscow Mechanical Institute behalf M.V
December - Zander goes to work in the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM)
May - Zander organizes section of jet engines at the Bureau of the Central Council of the aeronautical engineering Osoaviahima.
2 nd half - cektsiya transformed into the Study of Reactive Motion (GIRD). Chairman - Zander, Chairman of the Technical Council - S.P. Korolev
April - set production part GIRD, allocated space in the Garden and Savior street, states. Zander goes for permanent work in GIRD.
May 1 - Chief GIRD appointed S.P. Korolev. Work turned in full swing. As soon as the engine has been created OR-2. That he later served as the prototype engine for Germany missile V-2 ". But Zander was not destined to participate in the testing of missiles GIRD-X equipped with this engine.
Excessive stress, work literally wear, caused severe fatigue. At the insistence of the staff and doctors FA. Zander went to rest and receive treatment in Kislovodsk. Along the way he contracted typhoid fever. The weakened body can not cope with the disease and talented inzhener-designer, died at the 46 th year of life.
1933, March 28 - the death of FA Zander in Kislovodsk.
Also in 1933, Moscow hosted the launch of the first two Soviet missiles. One of them was the engine Zehnder. Thus began the practical exploration of the cosmos in Russia. And the role of Frederick Arturovich Zander is that he was the first in our country as an engineer, succumbing to their practice solving problems related to the implementation of space flight.