Robert Esnault-Pelterie( Scientist in the field of space)
Comments for Robert Esnault-Pelterie
Biography Robert Esnault-Pelterie
Years of life
1881, November 8 - in Paris in the family textile factory owner's son, named Robert. The boy appeared very early in the ability of the technique. He was making itself different ingenious device for parents to buy him toys. At the age of seventeen young man equipped home physical-chemical laboratory instruments own making and to address the wireless telegraph.
1898 - Robert finishes Lyceum Janson de Sailly and continued his studies at the Sorbonne. It coincided with a turning point in the development of aeronautics, . which is becoming increasingly apparent to the "dynamic aeronautics", . that is heavier than air flying machines (flying lighter than air gas-filled devices were called "natural" or "static ballooning"),
Young, very wealthy and talented engineer designs monoplanes REP (on his initials) of different types and light engines for them.
The situation in France and the United States has done little to work on airplanes. Were still fresh in the memory failures Langley and Adair, received at the first state subsidies and delivered by the official circles some disappointments. Even in 1909, after the successful flights of the Wright brothers, Santos-Dumont, Bleriot, Farman and others in the press of France continued discussion - airplanes or airships?
Esnault-Pelterie starting the development of jet turbine. Later the idea of jet propulsion will lead him to an entirely different field of activity.
1902 - Robert Esnault-Pelterie received a degree in the specialty: general biology, general physics, general chemistry.
1903 - Robert Esnault-Pelterie begin immediate development of airplane design. Not having sustained flight raytovskogo "option, Esnault-Pelterie reiterates the idea of monoplane.
first sample completed REP monoplane. The author gave it the form of a swallow.
October 19 - Robert Esnault-Pelterie first raised in his airplane to a height of 6 meters.
June - Esnault-Pelterie French flying club presents its new car - REP-II-bis.
Esnault-Pelterie elected to the Aeronautic League of France
1909 - A new model monoplane.
Esnault-Pelterie creates a monoplane, on which the French pilots leave the Americans behind on basic indicators of flight.
the Sorbonne opened the world's first department of aeronautics. Esnault-Pelterie elected assistant.
1911 REP monoplane exhibiting at the International aeronautical exhibition in Moscow. Several vehicles purchased and used in the Gatchina flying school.
1912 Esnault-Pelterie visited Petersburg, where he talks about buildings in the capital of Russia Empire of the plant for the production of aircraft. There he gave a lecture on space flight, which is considering the relationship between initial and final mass of rocket. However, he concluded that the possibility of space flight, only the use of atomic energy. Tsiolkovsky and independently by Zander came to different conclusions, and they were right: space flights are possible and even then known sources of energy.
Just at this time in the journal "Bulletin of aeronautics" ends with the publication 2-nd part of Tsiolkovsky's work "The study of outer space rocket appliances" (1-I was published in 1903).
The coincidence in time of these events gave rise to numerous disputes later on research priorities. Sam Esnault-Pelterie tried his best to emphasize his superiority, which at times was of too frank and even aggressive nature.
However, hardly a French engineer, a direct borrowing of ideas of Tsiolkovsky. According to many very influential historians of science, abroad knew nothing about the works of Tsiolkovsky until 1923.
Like most of the pioneers of rocket technology, Esnault-Pelterie connected his passion the idea of flight into space with the novels of Jules Verne. According to Esnault-Pelterie, thought about the unsuitability of the one suggested by his famous compatriot (fired artillery shells) and the need for a missile occurred to him not later than 1908
. 1915 Esnault-Pelterie unexpectedly changed the direction of research and develops the idea of the tides to produce electricity
1920, January the publication of the work of Robert Goddard on space. Letter Esnault-Pelterie thereto.
1928 publication of Esnault-Pelterie "Investigation of the upper atmosphere using rockets and the possibility of interplanetary travel". The work was divided into five chapters and deals with the entire range of the major issues facing the modern researcher:
. a) selection of the most economical form of missile
. b) assessing the impact of the atmosphere at the optimum form of missiles
. c) feature of missiles for the study of higher layers of the atmosphere and for interplanetary travel - flight to the moon and the possibility of these flights
. d) the conditions for space flights of living beings:
. conditions of the spacecraft
. physiological effect of the lack of acceleration
. questions of controllability for return to Earth
. data on flight conditions on Venus and Mars
. d) discussion questions interplanetary missions:
. - A scientific interest in these flights
. - That humanity can find on other planets
. - If other worlds are inhabited
. 1928, . May 28 secret report Esnault-Pelterie Chairman of the committee on astronautics at the French Astronomical Society of General Ferrier, . which Esnault-Pelterie pointed to the possible military applications of rocketry and the intensive research in Germany in this area,
. I must say that Esnault-Pelterie passed in 1902, military service in the company context, under the command of Captain Ferrier, whose military career was very successful then, and since then has maintained friendly relations with him.
Esnault-Pelterie leads mathematical calculations about the possibility of destruction of the population of Paris for a few hours.
The seriousness of the issue is proved by the history. Comparative small size of the territories of European countries generate the closeness of the theaters of military action, front and rear areas.
New Prussian troops have made artillery bombardment of Paris, even during the Franco - Prussian War in 1870 - 1871 years. The paradox of history - one of the zealous advocates of bombing the French capital was the great German historian, . author of classic and unsurpassed works on the history of ancient Rome and Roman Law, . and later Nobel laureate "number two" in literature Theodor Mommsen!.,
The second attempt of this kind was made during the First World War. After stabilization of the line between France and Germany the front at a distance of 118 km from Paris and the reflection of the French pilots raids Germanic Aviation, . Germans, . for application of artillery strikes such a distance, . produced a gigantic cannon "colossal", . that summer of 1918 released in Paris over three hundred shells,
However, significant damage has been done was. Cyclopean dimensions of this instrument:
. Barrel length - 34 meters
. outer diameter - 1 meter
. thickness in the breech - 40 cm
. weight gun - 750 tons
. shell weight - 120 kg
. the length of projectile - 1 meter
. diameter of the shell - 21 cm
. powder charge weight - 150 kg
. pressure in the trunk - 5000 atmospheres
. Muzzle velocity - 2000 m / sec
. elevation - 52 degrees
. the highest point of the flight projectile - 40 km
. Projectile flight time - 3.5 minutes
. of them in the stratosphere - 2 minutes
. led to the fact that even the best Krupp steel not withstand the monstrous internal stresses in the barrel on ignition of gunpowder charge
. As a result, an instrument often broke down, and shooting accuracy with such a distance was low
. Another famous Krupp gun - a giant mortar "Big Bertha", used in Belgium for the shelling of castles and fortifications, has proved little better, although its dimensions were significantly smaller:
. Barrel length - 5 meters
. Caliber - 42 cm
. weight gun - 900 kg
. range - up to 14 km
. Thus, the question itself was far from idle
. Report Esnault-Pelterie contained a detailed description of assumptions, a detailed derivation of the formulas, information about the methods of calculation and the actual numerical data. Thus, it was a serious study, whose results can be easily verified.
In particular, Esnault-Pelterie concluded that the most cost-missile bombardment compared with aviation, which was later confirmed by the experience of the bombing of England Germanic missile A-4 (V-2) during the Second World War.
As the only defensive measures Esnault-Pelterie offered training retaliatory missile strike on the densely populated Ruhr region and has developed a specific design of liquid rocket engine.
General Ferrier gave the report to higher authorities, but, as often happens, the report of interest is not aroused, and was returned to the author.
1930 Next Esnault-Pelterie: "Astronautics"
1931, Oct. 9 explosion in the laboratory during the tests missile engine. Indifference government circles to the report led to what Esnault-Pelterie not received the expected subsidies for the continuation of works. He began experimenting himself, taking as an oxidant tetranitromethane. Explosion deprived him of four fingers on his left hand.
However, in the end he was still a small grant and an assistant - Lieutenant Barre administration of artillery of the French army.
1935 report of the Society of Civil Engineers of France. There were new data on the flight ballistics and thermodynamics of processes in the combustion chamber.
1937 Esnault-Pelterie brings up an experimental rocket engine design and arrange for testing in the presence of official experts. The engine, having worked for 60 seconds, developed a draft 126 kg.
1939 in connection with the outbreak of the Second World War, Robert Esnault Pelterie stops experimental work and emigrated to Switzerland
. 1942 Robert Esnault-Pelterie settled in Geneva.
. 1948 publication of the book "Dimensional Analysis"
. 1950 new book, "Dimensional Analysis and Metrology"
. In eighteen years of living in Switzerland, Esnault-Pelterie not weaken the scientific activities
. Being cut off from the experimental and engineering work, he directs his forces in the theoretical field. In recent books French scientist introduces and analyzes the fundamental philosophical concepts: "Ekzokosm", "Nookosm" and "Fantakosm". Ironically, these works have not yet been studied scientific thought. Many biographers Esnault-Pelterie they do not even mention.
Esnault-Pelterie lived to launch first satellite in the USSR. Despite many previous disputes with Russia on issues of priority science in space, he expressed great satisfaction over the success chuvtvo Russian.
In the late 50-ies Esnault-Pelterie decides to return to France. But this did not happen was already destined. When you move home, the train Geneva-Nice, a few minutes before crossing the border with France, 76-year-old Robert Esnault-Pelterie died.
1957, Dec. 7 death Esnault-Pelterie.