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Semyon Kosberg Arievich

( Soviet designer, creator of aircraft and rocket engines)

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Biography Semyon Kosberg Arievich
photo Semyon Kosberg Arievich
Arievich Semyon Kosberg, a prominent Soviet designer, creator of aircraft and rocket engines, was born October 14, 1903 g in g. Slutsk, Minsk province in the family of a blacksmith, artisanal. From 1917 to 1919. Kosberg studied in Slutsk commercial school, from 1919 to 1925. worked as a blacksmith and a mechanic in his father's smithy, and at the same time from 1922 to 1924. taking night education courses, where he received secondary education from 1925 to 1926. served in the Red Army, and after demobilization he worked as a fitter in a factory named C. Khalturina in g. Leningrad, from 1927 to 1929. studied at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute and then at the Moscow Aviation Institute, which he graduated in 1930. In 1931, Mr.. S. A. Kosberg was sent to work at the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), . where he started as a design engineer to head a major research department, . dealing with a system of direct injection (HB) of fuel in the cylinder heads of aircraft engines,

Intensive development of aviation technology at that time necessitated the creation of powerful and efficient aircraft engines and, consequently, reliable, simple and safe operation of fuel equipment. Conventional carburetor fuel supply system (TSP), applied in the work of all aircraft engines, could not fully meet the increased requirements for their operation, especially in the case of multi-cylinder engines. In this regard, research centers and aviation firms in the USA, Britain and Germany began to intensively develop the new engine fuel supply system through its direct injection into the cylinder heads. Start such work and in CIAM. With a group of engineers with. A. Kosberg studying foreign experience, develop and test a system for aircraft engine HB M-34. Until 1940. been designed, manufactured and tested several different types of HB units (as in row, and drum).

In 1936 and 1937. in the publication of CIAM 'Aviadvigatel' appear first article with. A. Kosberg injection of TSP for gasoline engines. In 1939, Mr.. in the collection 'technique fleet' to print an article on the characteristics of aggregates HB. By 1940, Mr.. have been resolved issues of building automation systems and control units HB, as well as their production technology

. Application of HB when working aircraft engines made it possible to achieve an increase in their power, . improve efficiency, . improve the performance of (the possibility of running at low temperature, . injectivity, . functional stability at low speeds and at high altitudes), . reliable operation in military aircraft evolutions,
. These advantages of fuel supply systems through its direct-injection gave rise to the well-known for their design and implementation in the aviation industry.

With. A. Kosberg was one of those young enthusiasts who had the first part of laying a solid foundation of Soviet aviation, and later missile technology.

A talented engineer and an energetic organizer with. A. Kosberg in 1940. appointed deputy chief designer of OKB plant? 33 People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry (NCAP) and the Chief of Bureau in the development of systems of HB at the plant. In the first harsh year of World War II due to the increased need for radical improvement of combat aircraft EDO factory? 33, with the evacuation has been divided into two separate companies, . one of which, . Future KB Khimavtomatika (KBHA) was evacuated in g,
. Berdsk Novosibirsk region in a factory? 296 of. Dzerzhinsky NCAP. From 13 October 1941. the company became independent and acquired the name of the OKB-296. Chief Designer was appointed with. A. Kosberg. In the harsh Siberian conditions, essentially from scratch, a handful of specialists from 30 people, led by C. A. Kosberg, in a short time has established and implemented in a production unit direct injection of NV-memory for aircraft engine AL-82FN General Designer A. D. Shvetsov

. Using motor AL-82FN aircraft fighter La-5 greatly improved their tactical flight data (rate of climb, . maneuverability, . speed, . range), . that provide benefits to domestic fighters in aerial combat over the best German cars 'Focke-Wulf-190' and 'Messerschmitt-109',
. The undoubted merits of HB confirmed by operation in combat conditions, AL-82FN engine with an aggregate of NB-SD, led to complete removal from 1943-1944. carburation from all newly developed piston engines.

Motors AL-82FN with an aggregate of NB-memory set during the Great Patriotic War fighter aircraft La-5 and La-7 General Designer With. A. Lavochkin, Tu-2 bombers and torpedo aircraft Tu-2D General Designer A. N. Tupolev, and after the war-on fighter aircraft La-9, La-11. A. Lavochkin, passenger aircraft IL-12 and IL-14 general constructor. V. Ilyushin.

From 1942 to 1949. production plants? 296 and 154 were put into operation more than 30000 units of NB-SD, and NB-3FA. From 1941 to 1952. EDO has developed options aggregates HB II and 40 of their modifications to aircraft engines: AL-82FN, AL-2, AL-21, AL-73K, Ash-82T General Designer A. D. Shvetsov, AM-38 AM-39 AM-42 AM-43 AM-44 AM-46 General Designer A. A. Mikulina; VC-109 In general designer. YA. Klimov, M-253K, VD-4K chief designer in. A. Dobrynin. For a great personal contribution to the creation of combat aircraft with. A. Kosberg was awarded orders 'Honor', Red Star and World War 1-st degree. He was awarded a military decorations, medals and a number of workers EDO

. The next phase of the aggregates HB II study was the introduction of injection of water-alcohol mixtures in the cylinders of aircraft engines, . that can significantly increase the pressure in the fuel suction and force the engines to power without the appearance of detonation when operating on a fuel source class, . as well as to transfer fuel engines with low octane,
. Scheme co-injection and water-alcohol mixtures using aggregates HB ensure a more even distribution of the mixture of individual cylinder engine, compared with schemes injection before supercharger and the intake pipes of cylinders, . and the exclusion of additional units for the filing of the mixture: Pumps, . Filter, . Nozzle, . Pipeline,

A special place in the C. A. Kosberg and led them to occupy EDO study design and simulate jets, . tech in the manufacture and reliable in operation, . because of these important sites is largely dependent on the basic parameter of piston, . turbojet and liquid rocket engines, efficiency,
. For the first time in domestic practice have been introduced prolivochnye test injectors in their staffing, to ensure uniformity of hydraulic characteristics of these nodes.

In 1941-1954 he. With the guidance of iodine. A. Kosberg than HB units have been developed and transferred to the production of 10 types of series and 17 types of pilot jets for aircraft engines, 31 types of workers and 4 types of launchers nozzles for jet engines 18 titles.

When the war ended in 1946. EDO has been moved to z. Voronezh and became known as OKB-154. By this time, to replace the piston-engined jet came: EDO, continuing to work on the units of HB, the beginning of the development units of fuel equipment for turbojet and turbofan engines in general designers. YA. Klimov A. M. Cradle A. A. Mikulino P.A. Solovyov A. G. Ivchenko, N. D. Kuznetsova. Develop and implement a production fuel injectors, fuel control in the afterburner, control and regulation of engines, fuel filters, oil vane pumps and many other systems and units.

With. A. Kosberg has taken the initiative to develop a number of launchers starters on solid fuel (powder), and then the liquid (unitary) for high bypass aircraft engines. In the early 50-ies a number of experimental design bureau aviation industry for lack of workers' That ceased to exist. S. A. Kosberg understood that further development under the leadership of EDO is necessary to master new topics. By this time, EDO has skilled engineering design staff and skilled production, so you can take to create a more complex subject. Lessons learned developing launchers starters on liquid fuel, . includes a large part of the rocket engine assemblies (gasifier, . turbine, . Pumps, . regulators and management), . was used for the transition to a higher stage of development engine for the creation of air-liquid propellant engines,
. Such engines have been repeatedly included in the flight and the possibility of their repeated use have long life. Solution to this problem in a complex of considerable difficulty. Through the efforts of the Special Design Bureau under the direction of P. A. Kosberg like rocket engines were developed in 1954-1958 he.

The first rocket engine (D-154) Thrust 4 they were designed with the use of a unitary monopropellant OT-157. because by this time a large body of research, studies on the single-component fuels in GIPKh under the guidance and direct participation of a. D. Konopatov. However, the possibility of sympathetic detonation of unitary fuel, which resulted in one of the experimental engine start to the destruction of the test stand, forced to abandon further work with these fuels.

The second rocket engine (SC-1) with adjustable thrust from 4 to 2 are working on fuel from the liquid oxygen and ethyl alcohol. When creating an engine combustion chamber was used, developed at OKB C. P. The Queen and provided to the OKB-154 as a result of the first creative contacts. Both engines were intended for fighter aircraft E-50A General Designer A. I. Mikoyan.

The third rocket engine (SC-1 K) with adjustable thrust from 4 to 1.5 for those fighter Yak-27B General Designer A. S. Yakovlev was the first country in the engine of this type of reusable operating on liquid oxygen and kerosene, with a resource of up to 3 h. For the first time in the scheme was included rocket engine gas generator that runs on the main components of fuel.

In August 1957,. EDO was reorganized into an independent statutory State Union Experimental Design Bureau? 154. Its specialists have been assigned to work on the creation of new aircraft LRE.

The gained experience, confidence in the power of collective, creative initiative with. A. Kosberg OKB allowed to proceed to the development of liquid propellant missile engines class ground-to-air 'for the defense of the country.

In 1957-1960 he. created LRE RD-0200 with adjustable thrust from 6 to 0.6-ton, who works at the hypergolic propellants (AK-27 And oxidizer and fuel TG-02) for the second stage of the rocket designer general C. A. Lavochkin. The development was carried out jointly with the OKB-2 GKOT (State Committee of Defense Technology) A Chief Designer. M. Isaeva, which began a close creative cooperation of both teams and their chief designers. Testing of the engine was completed by the Special Design Bureau-154.

For the first time in the country was created with a tenfold rocket engine thrust control. He successfully passed flight tests and was transferred to production.

In 1959-1960. developed rocket engine RD-0201 with adjustable thrust from 6 to 3 gauss, working on hypergolic propellants (AK-27P oxidizer and fuel TG-02) for anti-aircraft missiles General Designer II. D. Grushin. Successful work on the creation of rocket engine strengthened the credibility of DB in this area.

High sense of collective responsibility for the assigned work, the gift of technology foresight with. A. OKB Kosberg brought to the forefront of science. He was among the first felt the call of the cosmos, knowing that the new space technology will spur the development of all sectors of the economy, which means it - the main direction of application of forces.

Chief Designer of rocket-space systems with. P. Queen were well known by C. A. Kosberg samples of air rocket engines, knew Sergei Pavlovich and his creative collaboration with the chief designer of rocket engine A. M. Isayev.

February 10, 1958, Mr.. there was a meeting with. A. Kosberg and its companion A. D. Konopatov s. P. Korolev, marked the beginning of their cooperation. Came together and formed a friendship of these people the same properties of mind and character - an obsession and utter devotion to science. The two-stage launch vehicle (LV) structure with. P. Queen has successfully placed into orbit three first artificial Earth satellite. However, further study of outer space was impossible without the third stage, which would provide the acceleration of the ship until the second cosmic speed.

The oxygen-kerosene rocket engine RD-0105 draft 5,04 ts for the third stage (Block 'E') 8K-72 rocket was developed in 1959-1960. together with OKB-1 P. P. Queen in record time-9 months. This was the first domestic rocket engine that runs in conditions close to a state of weightlessness and high vacuum

. Application of the third stage engine RD-0105 made it possible to increase the mass of artificial satellites from 1400 to 4500 kg and reach escape velocity, . that allowed a flight of space objects in the area of the moon and the moon, . circled the moon and photographed its reverse side,
. For creative contribution to those flights. A. Kosberg was awarded the academic degree of doctor of technical sciences, he was awarded the Lenin Prize

. New self-development EDO became oxygen-kerosene rocket engine RD-0109 draft 5, . 56 ts for the third stage (Block 'E') improved and, . main, . highly reliable launch vehicle 'East', . applied when you start targeting satellites returning them to Earth,
. With this launch vehicle performed a task of global importance, and above all - the launch into outer space first cosmonaut Yu.A.. Gagarin.

Collective feat pioneers of Soviet science and technology 12 April 1961, Mr.. permanently inscribed with the name. A. Kosberg in the history of space. For personal contribution to this historic flight, he was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor

. Development priority EDO became more powerful thrust 30, . 4-ton oxygen-kerosene rocket engine: RD-0107 for the third stage booster rocket 'Sunrise'; RD-0108 and at its base significantly upgraded engine RD-0110 for the third stage (block 'AND') RN 'Union',
. According to its technical and operational requirements of each of these engines should achieve a qualitatively new level of development of national missile technology

. With the launch vehicle 'Sunrise' performed the first launches probes 'Moon', . 'Venus', . 'Mars', . and with the LV 'Union' to undertake all tasks into orbit spacecraft such as 'Union' with the astronauts on board and cargo ships of type 'T Union' for the operation of long-term orbital station 'Salyut' and 'World',

Much effort and energy he gave C. A. Kosberg creation of new rocket engines, working on the scheme with staged combustion cycle (which began development in 1961, EDB). With the new force appeared inexhaustible energy, commitment, dedication scientist, backed by extensive knowledge, experience and organizational skills. In the course of the work to resolve a number of fundamental problems, which allowed not only to develop a reliable engine design, but also to open a further broad prospect for strong and effective means of launching space objects in orbit.

With great service. A. Kosberg and D. D. Konopatov was the creation of the Design Bureau for a short period of modern test facilities with well-equipped experimental laboratories. It became possible to develop more powerful rocket engines, working as a cryogenic fuel, and fuel for long-term storage. The first of these rocket engines, working on a scheme with afterburning of fuel-nitrogen tetroksida and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine were RD-0202 and RD-0205, respectively, for the first and second stage carrier rocket Proton 'general designer in. N. Chelomeya. On this basis, have been developed rocket engine RD-0210 and RD-0211 for the second stage and RD-0212, for the third stage.

Creating engines for RN 'Proton', as Mr. appearance of most missiles of this class - a major achievement of rocket and space technology. With this launch solved such outstanding problems, . as a conclusion to the orbit of heavy automatic stations 'Proton', . launch returned automatic stations 'probes' for a flight around the moon, . Ships on the moon Lunokhod, . launching interplanetary spacecraft, . who took samples of lunar soil, . landed on Mars and Venus, . finding long-term orbital station 'Salyut', . 'World' in space and satellites in stationary orbit,
. Retrofitting and commissioning of the engines mentioned complete without seeds Arievicha. In early 1965, Mr.. he died in an automobile accident while on duty.

Almost twenty-five years. A. Kosberg OKB headed. Has made a considerable personal contribution to the creation of a new aviation and space technology. The difficulties of recent years has strengthened those aspects of the nature Arievicha seeds that had affected all of his behavior and is particularly evident in situations requiring maximum exertion. S. A. Kosberg was characterized citizenship, a sense of involvement in the affairs of the homeland, the high conviction communist, independent thinking, the ability to ignite their creative team charge.

Academic paid much attention to the challenges to the creation of new technology. He possessed not only the engineering knowledge, . but amazing intuition, . broad scientific outlook, . could quickly and correctly predict the future of some design decisions, . skillfully used the power of new materials and advanced technologies,
. Much attention is paid Semen Arievich linkages with research institutes and related businesses, headed out many of the search and experimental work.

With. A. Kosberg carefully reared and educated staff, was able to forgive and to demand that can provide the opportunity to work and dare, encourage initiative. He is especially attentive to young professionals, involve them in research activities, every encouragement to the pursuit of new, encouraging independent research. Semen Arievich was an example of a mature, wise leader, scientist, engineer, literate, because all he was familiar: the design of new products and technology of their production, and manufacturing, and testing.

With. A, Kosberg has always combined the design activity from a scientific and social work. He was a delegate XXII Congress of the CPSU, which was a member since 1929, has repeatedly elected a member of the Party Committee. Much time and attention devoted Semen Arievich scientific training: As a Doctor of Science, . led a group of graduate students of the Polytechnic Institute at the Department of engines, . had a number of published scientific works and inventions, . embodied in the developed design,

With. A. Kosberg KBHA founded, fostered a team, showed him the way to creativity, taught to fight and build. On the foundations laid by C. A. Kosberg, KBHA team built a beautiful building, creating the scientific and technological developments for space research, the national economy and national defense. The name of the scientist widely known to all teams participating in work connected with the aviation and missile technology.

Memory C. A. Kosberg immortalized - it is named after a crater on the reverse side of the moon.

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