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KUZNETSOV Viktor Ivanovich

( Russia scholar, one of the first creators of rocket and space technology in the USSR)

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Biography KUZNETSOV Viktor Ivanovich
Russia scholar, one of the first creators of rocket and space technology in the USSR. Born in 1913 in Moscow. Childhood years spent in Moscow, and graduated from high school in the town of Borovichi, in the Novgorod province, where at the time his father was working. After high school came to work at Borovichskij ceramic factory assistant electrician. Natural talent and secondary education, which is at a general level it looked very powerful, soon made him a foreman electrician. Viktor always prided himself that while he was assigned to calculate the transformer substation, he did it and worked as the substation. Soon, however, received in school was the knowledge to miss.

In 1933, Viktor Kuznetsov entered the Leningrad Industrial Institute (at the time of graduation, he became the Polytechnic, now - St. Petersburg Technical University) on a specialty "Boilers". He studied well and, perhaps, never would we not recognize the name Kuznetsova, if the second course did not recognize the organization of the Engineering and Physics Department (now Physics and Mechanics), a new group of "Calculation and design of the aircraft". I decided to change majors and has never even felt sorry. He studies a new specialty with enthusiasm. And it is not surprising. Lectures to students read the outstanding scientists mechanics Leo Gerasimovich Loitsyansky and Eugene Leopoldovich Nicolai. In one group studied by Kuznetsov future director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Georgi N. Flerov and future designer of heavy tanks and nuclear weapons Nicholas L. Spirits. The atmosphere at the engineering physics department, which was the dean of academic Abram Ioffe, contributed to the birth of outstanding scientists and engineers. Pre-diploma practice Kuznetsov took place in Leningrad instrument-making factory and, as they say, it fell to the court. Therefore, when, after graduation, he received the direction of the department chief mechanic Izhevsk motorcycle factory, instrument designer decided to intercept a sensible graduate, they have managed to.

During the 30 years, much attention was paid to the creation of a powerful navy, and that the fleet was powerful, he should be equipped with modern appliances. So Viktor Ivanovich Kuznetsov engaged gyrocompass. In those years the problem of domestic production of gyrocompass was very urgent. Only two countries in the world - the U.S. and Germany - to produce such devices and their cost in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. It was necessary to solve this problem and it was solved, including the active participation of the then young engineer Viktor Kuznetsov. In the late 30's Victor Ivanovich interested in shooting at motion and he was appointed head of the newly established group. Three months of grueling work, and in late October 1939 the system was installed at the main caliber guns cruiser "Kirov". The system has greatly increased the effectiveness of naval artillery fire, for that Kuznetsov in 1942, already in the war years, was awarded the Stalin Prize. Talented, promising engineer attracted attention and in 1940 the People's Commissar Steel Tevosyan, which was previously Minister of shipbuilding, invited him to move from Leningrad to Moscow. But no persuasion nor Tevosyan, no involvement of the Molotov gave no result: Kuznetsov categorically did not want to move to Moscow, Leningrad, considering that he has a very interesting work and there is no need to change it. He returned to Leningrad, he immediately went to Kronstadt, and from there - the cruiser: decided to sit it out, maybe forget. It was not there. He was found in the sea ... I had still to go. In Moscow, a research institute spent six months. And then there was the challenge to the Commissariat of Foreign Trade and direction to Germany to take the cruiser. Late fall of 1940 Kuznetsov went to Berlin. Already was the Second World War, but relations between the USSR and Germany were quite close. Soviet Union supplied the wheat and oil, Germany was building for this cruiser. Kuznetsov had to take control devices spotlights, shooting guns and torpedoes. We had a lot to go to Germany, to visit many factories and companies. Great Patriotic War caught Kuznetsova in Berlin. Together with other Soviet citizens were interned, placed in Moab prison, then to Camp Blyankefeld. In camp, he spent about ten days. Then, together with other professionals through Yugoslavia moved to Bulgaria, and then handed over to the Turks. In Moscow Kuznetsov returned only in August 1941.

During the war he worked in the same research institute, which was evacuated to Sverdlovsk. The main work done during the war, he believed Kuznetsov stabilizer for the tanks, which significantly increased the aimed fire. This work was awarded in 1946 second Stalin Prize. In April 1945, Viktor Ivanovich commanders in Germany at the same plant, which in 1940 did gyroscopic devices for our cruisers. It is at this factory there first contact with rocketry, where he found the stabilizers for the V-2 rockets. In August 1945 a new trip to Germany. With him flying Mishin, Pilyugin, Barmin, Ryazan, Boguslavsky, Resurrection. Who would have assumed that the company is random passengers gathered on the years.

Since 1945, leaving the fleet, Kuznetsov begins work on missile. May 13, 1946 he was appointed head of the newly created Institute, 10, who was charged with gyroscopes. From zero had to develop the theory of gyroscopes. There is no need to transfer the work of Kuznetsova in the years. All that was created in the missile and space technology, is closely linked with his name. Since the R-1, its devices are on all the rockets on the spacecraft on interplanetary probes. They have to spin the Earth and work until the end of the flight. Kuznetsov entered the first part of the famous Royal Council of Chief Designers. In the narrow circle of friends called him "Victor-baby" - he was the highest of all major.

In 1956, for participation in the establishment of nuclear-missile shield of the USSR was the first time awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. For participation in the works to build the first satellite in 1957 was awarded the Lenin Prize. In 1961, for participation in the preparation and implementation of the first manned flight, the second was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. Published numerous papers on inertial navigation systems and autonomous control. In 1968 he was elected a member of the USSR. In 1967 and 1977 for new work to create rocket and space technology was awarded the USSR State Prize. Currently retired.

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KUZNETSOV Viktor Ivanovich, photo, biography
KUZNETSOV Viktor Ivanovich, photo, biography KUZNETSOV Viktor Ivanovich  Russia scholar, one of the first creators of rocket and space technology in the USSR, photo, biography
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