MAKEEV Viktor( Scientific, designer)
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Biography MAKEEV Viktor
In the history of rocketry and astronautics are inscribed the names of thousands of scientists and engineers - the leaders and creative participants in the creation of missiles and space vehicles. And only very few of them managed to establish and long enough to develop significant new directions of rocket and space engineering. A direction, . decades were left to the world the unique, . withstand the competition of other areas of the same or similar purpose, and always on the main technical characteristics of serial samples exceeds, . a half-century history of modern rocketry, . possibly, . and the world of mechanical engineering know only one-creation of the Soviet Union a strategic liquid ballistic missile for submarine,
. This trend started in thirty years led a remarkable scientist and designer in. P. Makeev.
Viktor Petrovich Makeyev born on 25 October 1924. a family of working with renowned by its production and the revolutionary traditions of the Kolomna Locomotive Works. Family of Peter Ivanovich, and Claudia Vasil'yevna Makeev lived in the village name with. M. Kirov latest newcomer to the line Kolomna-old Russian town, once compete with Moscow itself. Ancient temples, the Kremlin hanging over him the spirit of antiquity were only a background of early childhood Victor. But they are not to affect his character made a patriot? In accordance with the trends of time, growing up, he is more fond of the technique, but not locomotives, which, ignoring the symbol of the era, reigned in Kolomna, and aircraft. First 'sick' aviation father, he moved to Moscow and became a turner of the country's largest aircraft factory in Fili. At the factory, after the termination of contracts with the Junkers and other foreign experts, were organized several design bureau headed by domestic constructors. One of them was in. F. Otten. Creators of aviation, which has taken place then the leader of the scientific and technological progress, striving featured in a new, unknown, and at Bolkhovitinov this quality has been developed even stronger than most of his colleagues. It came to him to work a draftsman and learn the basics of designing a graduate in 1939. seven years Viktor Makeyev. He captured the atmosphere of creativity, aviation romance, clearly felt at the plant and, especially, in KB.
Then came the terrible 1941. . Victor evacuated not to KB, but with the vehicle in Kazan where he, like other teenagers, had to work 10-12 hours a week, often fell asleep right at the panel board. But here, young man showed himself apart, not only surpass the targets, but II find time for study. Having passed the external examinations for secondary school, he in 1942. entered the evening department of the Kazan Aviation Institute.
At last the long awaited breakthrough in the war. The plant returned from evacuation, and in. Makeev was transferred to the third course of the Moscow Aviation Institute. While Victor was able to study full-time department, had to combine their studies with work, to somehow make ends meet. And then the student has to join the life of another famous aviation school to work with in. M. Myasishcheva, to which he wanted to go after the thesis defense. But the state commission unexpectedly selected the most promising students to work in a mysterious NII-88. The advantage of this was that they immediately gave the salary of senior technicians, and lack of long-road to Podlipok, which at one end of the tenderloin took more than two hours. Moreover Makeev dreamed of becoming an aircraft, and the institute was offered to do a diploma of lifting man on a rocket into the upper atmosphere. With the theme of Victor handled quickly, engineering task safely, rocket ascent and descent by parachute stratonavta decided, but somehow it was not inspired its seriousness, the reality, still yet to achieve. return air. And, perhaps, with his perseverance has made would be if the head of the department, where he was supposed to work, was not with. P. Korolev, who unlike the other chief designers of NII-88 shots and picked himself jealously watched over the fate of anyone they chose for their cause. Summoning Makeyev and making sure, . that he stands by his ns so much because of the reluctance to travel far (this issue is the king promised to decide quickly enough), . but because of the lack of awareness in incomparably greater prospects of rocket technology in comparison with the aviation, . Sergei Pavlovich opened before him, these perspectives, . and after talking with Korolev Makeev was surprised, . I wanted to get away from this case,
. To deepen the acquaintance with missiles Makeev, among others, planned to leadership positions, members of NII-88 was sent to the Higher engineering courses rocketry when MVTU them. Bauman, among whom were teachers and the King himself, and his closest spodvizhiiki. It seemed that this time the fate of a young professional determined once and for all. He plunged his head into the development of missile technology essentially. At the higher engineering courses were more meticulous than Makeev, listeners. He often put speakers in their impasse voprosamived for them while in rocket technology was much more unknown than known. Particularly valuable in this study was that the deepening of knowledge held in parallel with the design work on missiles R-2 and P-W. where the knowledge generated immediately applied in practice.
But hard training and hard work did not absorb all the energy of Victor. His ability and special ability to communicate with people, . lead them immediately appreciated not only the king, . but the party committee, . and the youth, . Institute, . Makeyev and less than six months after the thesis defense was elected secretary of the Komsomol organization of NII-88, . while representing a large scale to implement, . Besides main, . many patronage construction and agricultural work,
. Remembering the promise of the Queen help in solving apartment millet. Makeev immediately went to Sergey Pavlovich, . but he did not just ask a flat, . and talking about aid in the construction of the Komsomol at home and so organized the construction of, . and then the whole life of youth enterprise, . it has become an example for the country's Young Communist League,
. As a result, the Komsomol Central Committee decision was made, supported by the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), take Makeeva the All-Union Komsomol work. Two years have passed by Victor Petrovich on 'hardware' work, and there he immediately won the trust and credibility. But organizational and political work did not respond sufficiently aspirations Makeyev, he was pleased with the first submitted in late 1952. opportunity to withdraw from it and immediately returned to the Queen. At this time he was already not just a head of department, . chief designer of one of the projects, . well-educated head of NII-88 Special Design Bureau (OKB)? 1, . subjects of the works which became the main, not only in the institute, . but throughout the industry,
. And because all projects queen successfully carried out, his voice has grown enormously, in proportion to swing head of a work performed by subcontractors which engulfed dozens of NPP, KB, factories, military units. As dreamed Sergey Pavlovich, . rocket became the cause of the whole country, . and in it he found a very important and crucial sector for Makeyev, . appointing him the lead designer of the first Soviet guided ballistic missile R-11 to stable propellants, . which has been widely anticipated military, . as used for missile engines P-1 and P-2 liquid oxygen made it impossible to widely use them in operational-tactical purposes on land, . and, . especially, . sea,
Rocket R-11 was in almost all respects much simpler than that developed in parallel with its strategic missiles R-5 and P-7, but she also was the first in its class, and problems with her was very much. They are missing and the deputy chief designer in. P. Mishin and A. P. Abramov, and leading designers in. P. Makeyev, AND. V. Popkov, M. F. Reshetnev, and the most Since. P. Queen. Sure, . developers of the missile, . much more convenient in operation, . than R-1, . software is somewhat apart from his ambitions to build missiles, . fueled with liquid oxygen, . Sergei Pavlovich provided still more autonomy, . than those, . who acted in the core area, . but for all the flaws and blemishes from all asking the same, . ensuring the highest quality for its time and pace of development,
Makeev seriously involved in the work on P-11 during its preparation for flight tests in the spring of 1953. The tests were initially very difficult: high-frequency oscillations often led to the destruction of 8-ton rocket engine, . who did not want to work in non-deficient kerosene, . often surprises and fuel system with liquid-pressure accumulator, . and engine starting system, . other systems,
. Intense work together to overcome all these difficulties and the similarity of the characters are brought together with Victor Petrovich, the chief designer of OKB-2 NII-88, . developer of rocket propulsion Alexei Mikhailovich Isayev and, . despite the fifteen-year difference in age, . made them close friends for life,
In overcoming all the 'whims' P-11 took two years, and 21 July 1955. She was put on arms. In the whole process of creating this missile, . Release of draft design before taking it into operation, . despite, . she had an original, . rather than repeat, . as P-1, . trophy, . design, . It took half the time, . than the development of the first guided ballistic missile,
. After the first successful launches F-11 military rocket men, in practice, saw how far easier to work with a missile, tucked stable, and not bystroisparyayuschimisya components of fuel. It became a real task of creating a mobile version of the R-11M missiles and weapons of its mobile installations and ships. Because the process of designing the rocket in the OKB-1 to quickly identify differences in the structure of the army and navy of its variants, the latter has received the designation R-11FM. In developing these modifications Makeev was actively involved from the very beginning, as well as in the commercialization of R-11, which by order of the Government dated 13 December 1953. it was decided to deploy the Urals, responsible for ensuring that work on the special design bureau (SLE)? 385 in g. Zlatoust. His representative in charge of SLE-385 King appointed in. P. Makeyev, and since then his fate and the work of all were related to the Urals. Previously, SCR-385 has successfully engaged only uncontrollable missile weapons, so before the designers immediately got a slew of new challenges. Makeev same, . increasingly coming to the Urals, . did not occupy the position of the Comptroller of the parent organization, . along with rapidly growing, . mainly by young professionals, . Urals team delved into the particularities of each problem and gave all their strength and capabilities to deal with it,
. Sometimes they proved inadequate, and then Makeev boldly went to the Ministry or to the Queen. Sergei Pavlovich not even once told him: 'You're ns my representative in the Urals, and the representative of the Urals in Podlipki', but help is always provided. Gradually, the Queen became clear that the OKB-1 can fully convey all the work on further development of operational-tactical missiles SCR-385, by sending Makeyev and several other professionals involved in this issue. Agree, and ministry, and it was decided to appoint a deputy chief designer Makeeva SLE. But when the King congratulated Viktor Petrovich appointment, . he is not happy, . as expected, to thirty years of engineering courage openly to Sergei Pavlovich expressed its confidence, . that case, would be much more useful, . if he will not be the deputy, . and once the chief designer,
. And queens, apparently remembering that he was headed GIRD aged 25 years, agreed with the proposal Makeeva. More difficult was to convince the Minister of Defense Industry of the USSR D. F. Ustinov, but the Queen is succeeded, 1-II in March 1955, Mr.. order of the Minister in. P. Makeev was appointed 'chief designer of the SCR-385 and simultaneously the deputy chief designer of OKB-1 P. P. Queen of the missile R-11 '.
The first task of the Ural KB was involved in the completion time of developing and flight testing of missiles R-11, as well as the development of its production. Because this Ural successful seers curled, then to the creation of the R-11FM Korolev attracted them, and at earlier stages. As a result of four years of joint work perva5 naval missile was put into service, the fleet was able to learn in practice fundamentally new weapons, and its creators, including in. P. Makeyev, in 1959. were awarded the Lenin Prize tion.
As chief designer Makeev from the beginning was the will pay? great attention to research work (SRW) to identify opportunities to improve missile. The first of these is research on the topic 'Ural' allowed to leave the initiative to create a new land-tactical missile system R-17 with twice the P-11M, range. With the approval of the Queen of such a project was implemented, and the complex in 1962. was adopted by the Soviet Army, and then the number of foreign army, received wide recognition for patovskim designation SS-16 'Scud'. But by the time the basic specialization of SCR-385 became a sea missiles, and serial production and further development of R-17 was transferred to Mr.. Votkinsk
. As the characteristics of the first national marine missile complex were very modest and range missile R-11FM more than an order of magnitude inferior to the U.S. posed a range ballistic missiles for submarines (SLBMs), 'Polaris', . to NII-88 immediately after the first launches of the R-11FM submarine in 1955,
. been tasked to develop a sea missiles with increased range and to begin pilot studies the possibility of their launch from under water. Sketch projects such RSM-13 with a range of 560 miles and F-15 with a range of 1000 km were made in the OKB-1 NII-88 under the direction of P. P. The Queen, and then in connection with the necessity of unloading the subject was transferred to OKB-586 (r. Dnipropetrovsk), led by M. K. Yangelya. But then again manifests originality Makeeva: knowing, . Dnepropetrovsk that hard work go for them on the main land-based strategic missiles and Yangel weary of the additional assignments, . Viktor negotiates with Mikhail Kuzmich take the development of R-13 over,
. Such a step was not immediately understood and endorsed by the leadership, . and only a year later, . August 31, 1958, . government issued a decree, . according to which 'in order to discharge EDO center and the rapid deployment and strengthening of experimental design but the missile base in the Urals' work on marine complex with missile R-13 were officially assigned to the SCR-385, headed by VP,
. Makeyev as the umbrella organization, and chief designer of C. P. Queen, N. A. Pilyugin and B. P. Barmin was ordered to provide SCR-385 and its related companies Ural technical assistance in the development of this complex. And such a comprehensive, including staffing, support by an experienced team, coupled with the young entuaziazmom Uralians ultimately led to success.
It should be noted that in relations with the founder of modern rocketry in Makeyev and Yangelya were directly opposite positions. Mikhail Kuzmich inspired his team to beat appeals korolevtsev, . walking on their original path, . 'fundamental difference' from the path of OKB-1, Victor Petrovich, . contrary, . overemphasized continuity of their projects from the works of OKB-1 and for every possible case tried to rely on the assistance the Queen and his team - and an emerging Makeyev Design Bureau of this policy was much more effective,
. In 1961. new complex was plateau-like area on the arms, SCR-385 was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor, his team was awarded the Lenin Prize, and became the chief designer of Hero of Socialist Labor. But the creation of this complex has not been a radical solution: to put the F-13, as the R-11FM. required to surface the submarine, which substantially reduced the combat capabilities of the missile-carrying fleet, as well as because of the short range of our first sea missiles had to be floated off the coast of the enemy.
Therefore, in 1959. Makeyev and Yangel on a competitive basis has been given the task to develop a new complex with sea combat missile R-21, capable of launching from a submerged submarine. The theoretical possibility of such a launch SLBMs was shown in the NII-88 for its model of solid propellant motors back in 1956. Practical experience of SCR-385 missiles over the sea was decisive for the outcome of competition: draft Ural missile R-21 with an underwater launch exceeded Ukrainian so that M. K. Yangel remained to congratulate an opponent, offering to withdraw the draft as well as earlier draft P-15, with further development.
Works fret complex with a missile R-21 were much more complicated than previous. They have become a real test of the maturity of the team, which now had to rely only on themselves. K. this time, Viktor Petrovich, taking much of the King's principles of organization of work, had completely migrated to the end of 1959. of Chrysostom in g. Miass near Chelyabinsk powerful head design bureau developed the production and the specific experimental facilities, . its broad-based subcontractors, . mainly based on the Ural NIN, . KB and plants, . its Board of Chief Designers, . its customer - the Navy - and its test sites in the waters of northern seas,
. With the successful establishment of R-21 team SLE-385 came to the forefront of missile technology and has become a monopoly in its field of rocketry. If another leader is, perhaps, would have led to complacency, slowdowns. After all, due to, . that this direction was considered in those years of non-core trunk development of rocket and space technology, . it could be further improved with a leisurely view of achieving the leading trends, . which the state leadership and the society has received much more attention,
. Makeev same in ever-increasing pace to continue to create designs of missile technology the highest degree of perfection, for a number of indicators not only not inferior to the best examples of space technology, but also exceed their. This, in particular, it was proved that when an honest, responsible and creative attitude to the cause of the state monopoly is not a deterrent to scientific progress.
Cause permanent creative success in. P. Makeyev and its engineering school, apparently, along with its unique engineering and organizational skills were his human qualities, the ability to give full play to their fullest capacity of the entire collective. He was not only a true patriot, but a convinced Communist. Power Makeyev, just as the power of the Queen, was the unity of word and deed, for him the principles of the communist attitude to work, unlike most of the leaders were not the slogans for the masses, but a true guide for action. His personal interests are never opposed to the interests of the collective, public and state interests, and were with them a whole. This is particularly evident in his administration as head of the company since 1963, with regard to social problems of the collective that eventually turning out new scientific and technological achievements.
In 1965, Mr.. joining the missile and space industry, . led by the Ministry of General Machine Building USSR, . and received the name of Machine Building Design Bureau (REM), . team of highly raised the brand, . once and approve, among the best the industry,
. Created in KBM Marine complexes with liquid rockets were the best in the world. Nevertheless, the customer decided, . Americans are using all their military solid rocket motors, not because, . they do not solve the complex problems of a long and environmentally safe storage of corrosive liquid propellants, . and for some other reason, ,
. Before the domestic construction organizations were tasked to create a sea missile with a solid engine, approaching the level of the American. And so, despite the utter novelty of the subject, the MSC in a short time to carry out this difficult task: Makeevskij complexes with solid-fuel missiles in no way inferior SLBMs 'Poseidon' and 'Trident'. However, domestic complexes with liquid rockets still were the best, so it is their sovershestvovanie remained the main focus of KBM. In the difficult conditions of modern enterprise is a new national economic and commercial destination for its missiles, . offers them as a small carrier for recovery of research and technological equipment in the upper atmosphere and space orbits,
. Commercially especially attractive relative cheapness of these complexes, since the cost of their production have already been made, and the cost of refurbishment as a peaceful goods are relatively low. A valuable advantage of rockets MSC. is that they can launch from almost any geographical point of oceans.
The most important component of success in. P. Makeyev was his constant attention to the scientific problems of rocketry, . many of which first emerged and were resolved just to create marine rocket complexes, . and even those areas of applied science, . which were typical of missile technology in general, . as applied to KBM acquires its specific nature, . whether the problem aerogasdynamics and Thermophysics, . dynamics and structural strength of missiles during their movement in the shaft of the underwater vehicle, . aquatic, . in the atmosphere and beyond, . or problems develop missile control system, . for which due to its non-fixed seats needed to launch the introduction of celestial, . which provided the same high precision missiles hit a target at intercontinental range if it is going to launch a boat, . that at the start of the land mines,
. The recognition of scientific merit in. P. Makeyev expressed in a sequential award of the degrees of Candidate (1959) and Doctor of Technical Sciences (1965), his election as corresponding member in 1968. and an active member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1976. In 1974. Viktor was the dearest to him an academic award, the Gold Medal From. P. Queen.
Even before the official conversion campaign. P. Makeev did much to introduce the achievements of rocketry in the national economy as chairman of the Scientific Council of the USSR on the mechanics of structures made of composite materials, which he was appointed to the Bureau of the Academy in 1977. The main achievements of scientific and technical areas, led, in. P. Makeyev, embodied not only created by the missile, the experiment brought up his team, but also in numerous works and inventions. No less attention than the scientific work, to give,. P. Makeev training and education for its staff and subcontractors. Starting teaching job in 1960. as an assistant professor of Chelyabinsk politeh.nicheskogo Institute (now Technical University), he built there and the stage of construction and headed the department of aircraft design, then was her professor, and in 1981. became head of the joint problems of power engineering department of the Moscow Physical-Technical Institute and MSC.
Great importance and high efficiency. Organizational, scientific and technical work in. P. Makeyev made him a great statesman. He was a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 7-10-convocation, a delegate of the last five the party congresses, and since 1976 member of the CC CPSU
. Although in recent years, Victor Petrovich increasingly become concerned about the health, . his death in the 61-th birthday in the prime of his life was totally unexpected and irreparable loss to the national science and engineering schools based Makeyev, . in cases which continues to live his creative energy,
. Employees rocket-space industry, and our entire nation has yet to be in its entirety to know and appreciate the great life feat glorious son of Russia Viktor Petrovich Makeyev.
|Michael for MAKEEV Viktor
|The article is, of course, a good story and I hope true, but gentlemen, you would have bothered to remove from the text of the outrageously silly notion that such a remarkable man was a Communist. This is so stupid that even hurt. All still 21 outside!