Yangelya Mikhail Kuzmich( Laureate of the Lenin and State prizes. Twice Hero of Socialist Labor. General Designer of KB 'South'. Academician.)
Comments for Yangelya Mikhail Kuzmich
Biography Yangelya Mikhail Kuzmich
"It so happened that during his life about him in general did not write it, and after his death - far less than he deserves." I. Golovanov.
"The attributes of superlatives: the talented, outstanding, brilliant - shocking to the imagination, but little to say in effect. Higher awards and honors reinforce rather than dissipate the mist around the person whose name is a peak in the Pamirs, a crater on the Moon, Small Planet ". V. Platonov.
"His name is related to the emergence of a fundamentally new direction in the field of rocketry. ... It is important to note that Yangel possessed a remarkable ability not only to put forward original ideas, but also to translate them into concrete design work and bring to a final phase - mass production ". Academician BN Petrov
"To be frank: it has a much deeper talent than was assumed in his time and what is considered". M. Kuznetsk.
MK. Yangel was born on October 25 (New Style) 1911 in Siberia in d. Zyryanov (now - Irkutsk region). In 1926, after the sixth grade Yangel leaving for Moscow, where at that time studying his elder brother Constantine. Powered by weaving factory, while studying in the factory school. In 1931 he entered the Moscow Aviation Institute. After graduating with honors from the Institute in 1937, sent to the Design Bureau Polikarpov NN, "the king of fighters" in those years. Is the Assistant Chief Designer. In 1938 he sent a lengthy mission in the aircraft factories in the U.S.. During the war Yangel mK. works in one of the aircraft factory in Novosibirsk. After the war - in KB famous aircraft designers Mikoyan and V. Myasishchev.
1948-1950 - studied at the Academy of Aviation Industry.
1950, April 12 - Head of SRI-88 in KB Queen S.P.
1951 - Mikhail Kuzmich has become one of the Vice S.P. Queen
. 1952, . May - appointed director of the Central Research Institute for the Missile Technology, . composed of a number of research departments, . Pilot Plant, . two branches, . pilot plants and more than ten KB, . including design bureau Queen S.P,
1954 April - mK. Yangel - chief designer of special design bureau in Dnepropetrovsk.
1957, June 22 - the first and the first successful test yangelevskoy medium-range missiles R-12 (in American terminology, the SS-4). This missile had a lot of new constructive achievement: to apply the new fuel components, a series of new solutions in the management of the rocket, the design of test equipment and devices for preparation and launch. New solutions allow for greater range (up to 2000 km). Besides, . and it was extremely important, . new propellants for missiles and allowed to develop in the future to spread throughout the entire series of future combat missiles fundamentally new solution - storing missiles in a permanent state of alert in the silo launchers, . that significantly improves the protection of missile systems,
1959 - installation of SS-4 on the military positions. The first Soviet missiles deployed in large numbers.
1960 June - successful test at the proving ground of the following system yangelevskogo KB - intermediate-range missiles R-14 (SS-5).
In May 1959 came the publication of two government decrees: one - on the development of intercontinental ballistic missile R-16 in KB mK. Yangel, another - on the development of R-9 in the OKB S.P. Queen. Yangelevskaya R-16 has several advantages: first, . She refueled with new components of fuel, . which gave her an opportunity to be in a position filled by up to thirty days, . and then more, . secondly, . missile had autonomous control system, . resulting R-16 to the target without any connection to the Earth, . Third, . it was easier to use,
. But the main advantage of rocket R-16 - is reliability and higher combat readiness. Besides Yangel ahead of the Queen for two years. And in the future F-16 formed the basis of the Strategic Rocket Forces
. 1960, . October 24 - during a prelaunch activities, . about 15 minutes before the scheduled first test launch missile R-16 (SS-7), . first intercontinental missile Yangelya MK, . there was an unauthorized launch of the second stage engine and the rocket exploded on launch pad,
. Diverges at a distance of 100-120 meters from the start of the concentric waves of Firestorm high speed devoured all living. In the inferno immediately burned 76 people, among them - Rocket Forces Commander Marshal M. Nedelin, a large group of leading experts yangelevskogo KB. Later in hospital due to burns and poisoning 16 people have died. Sam Yangel and a few others who had departed in the direction of smoke, miraculously survived. Mikhail Kuzmich very difficult suffered tragedy.
1961, February 21 - the first successful launch of the SS-7. 1962, October - an attempt to place the Soviet Union in Cuba, 24 launchers of SS-4 and 16 launchers of SS-5 led to the Cuban Missile Crisis. To resolve the crisis on Oct. 28, 1962, Mr.. a full alert was given, they thought the Americans, 20 of 24 launchers for SS-4. SS-5 to be deployed in December.
Perhaps the first time in its history the USA was almost completely defenseless against a new weapon. America was shocked. The military offered the president J. Kennedy immediately begin the bombing of Cuba. Over two hundred American ships implemented blockade of the island. The world is on the brink of another war. Fortunately, the leaders of the two superpowers, J. Kennedy and NS. Khrushchev managed to reach a solution very serious confrontation peacefully
. 1965 - adoption of a new ICBM R-36 (SS-9), third-generation missiles, at that time the most powerful military missile in the world, was subsequently equipped with booster stage and get a very efficient rocket, called the global
. Chairman of the State Commission on yangelevskoy global missile F.P. Subtle: "The U.S. is creating a missile defense system (missile defense)" Safeguard "by Russian missiles from North. Yangel as a strategist who can not take a strong enemy group in the forehead, a missile capable of around U.S. missile defense system in the south. Americans probably thought that we were not able to find countermeasures, especially to create a global missile. However Yangel denied their projections ". In total, between 1965 and 1974 had been deployed 288 SS-9 of all types, operated by the until 1980.
By the 1965-1966 year is the peak of the deployment of Soviet intermediate-range SS-4 and SS-5, most of which were aimed at targets in Western Europe. As noted, these missiles will drastically affect the overall situation in the world.
It is in KB Yangel in the 60-ies begin work on creating the first fully mobile ballistic missiles. One of the new ballistic missiles did a combination: the first stage solid fuel, the second - on liquid. In general, the new missile had a number of valuable innovations and pioneering solutions ... A novelty of rolling complex was transport-launch canister, which started right from the rocket. Was then applied and the so-called "lift-mortar": the missile flew out of the container, like a cork from a bottle of champagne, and its engine is started already in flight. Decision Yangelya mK. on the transition to this type of launch was so new and unusual that it seemed to many risky. In the U.S., a similar problem was resolved only after five years. This complex is anticipated the emergence of other mobile systems, in particular rail.
Since the mid 60's in Yuzhnoye begins a new stage - designing and creation of a fourth-generation ICBM - RS-16 (SS-17) and RS-20 (SS-18). Launch of new generation had a higher accuracy, equipped with independently targetable warheads, have a high degree of survival and technique of the so-called "cold" run with the ability to recharge launcher. In the early outbreak of the present discussion hurricane - this project had plenty of enemies. Even longtime associate Yangel, chief designer of missile silos EG Rudyak, and he refutes the project: "toss up as an apple, liquid edifice weighing more than two hundred tons - it is sheer nonsense". Yangel this "absurd" had translated into reality. True, he had to part with some skeptics, including the beautiful designer EG Rudyak. "I do not know what Yangel able to work miracles - then honestly admitted Eugene G.. - I never imagined that this man suffered three heart attacks, has such strength and courage when defending a new technique. Americans learned about the new missile, dubbed it "Satan".
In 1988, the SS-18 was located almost half of all warheads deployed on intercontinental ballistic missiles in the Strategic Rocket Forces. The Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions, signed on July 31, 1991 between the USSR and the United States had a special item according to which the Soviet Union has reduced by half the number of heavy ballistic missiles SS-18. Americans have long dreamed about the elimination of SS-18, because it was the only system that provides "asymmetrical response" (our side), even if America has SDI. Only a hundred of these missiles, experts estimate that the U.S. is able to launch not only 1000 independently targetable warheads, high power, but also 100 thousand decoys.
SS-18 has been included in the "Guinness Book of Records" as "the most powerful intercontinental ballistic missile in the world". Technical solutions embodied in the rocket, are recognized classics of military rocketry.
SS-18 was the last work of Mikhail Kuzmich Yangelya. October 25, 1971, the day of his 60 th anniversary, the heart of the great missileman stopped forever.
Yangelya Mikhail K. (1911-1971) - Soviet scientist, designer of rocket and space technology, Academician of the USSR (1966), twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1959, 1961) ... In 1937 he graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute. S. Ordzhonikidze. Worked in the KB H. N. Polikarpov (until 1944); participated in the development of I-16 fighters, S-17, a twin-engined fighter aircraft to escort bombers and other aircraft. From 1944 he worked in KB Ap. I. Mikoyan and in. M. Myasishchev. In 1950 he graduated from the Academy of aviation industry in 1952-54 Director of Research Institute. Since 1954, Chief Designer KB. Yangel created a new direction and his school in the development of rockets and spacecraft for various purposes, . made a significant contribution to the development of international cooperation of socialist countries in the field of satellite research, . as well as in the study of the upper atmosphere and near-Earth space prostrinstva program "Cosmos",
. Gold Medal. S. P. Queen of the USSR (1970) ... Deputy of the Supreme Soviet Sovetta 7-8-th convocation. Leninskoya Prize (1960), USSR State Prize (1967). Awarded 4 orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution, medals. In Ust-Ilimsk a bronze bust Yangel. In the Lower Ilimsk erected a monument to the scientist, his name is Harkostky Institute radioelestroniki. Federotsiya Space Medal of the Soviet Union established its name. His name were the streets in Moscow, Kiev. Dnepropetrovsk and other cities. Name Yangelya named a crater on the Moon.