Georgi Stepanovich Shonin( Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR, Lieutenant-General reserve)
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Biography Georgi Stepanovich Shonin
Georgi Shonin was born on August 3, 1935, Mr.. in the town of Lugano Rovenky (Voroshilovgrad) of the Ukrainian SSR. Happy childhood interrupted by war. His father, Stepan Vasilyevich, went to the front in the early days and did not return home ... missing. The long three years of occupation not contribute to the seriousness George. It was only in seventh grade, he "took up the mind" and carried away books. Especially liked his stories about the sailors, and appeared in George's dream of the sea and distant wanderings. But the article in the newspaper set in Odessa Special School Air Force upset all the plans. Then all the boys wanted to become pilots, and he succumbed to a general feeling.
George accepted, but the special school was disbanded, and the students enrolled in the Krasnodar (for the conspiracy was called Yeiskiy, although there is no aviation school was not) a military flight-technical school. Three years later, in 1953. after exams. Shonin was sent to Leningrad, in the 93rd Naval Aviation School of initial training. Here is his dream of sky and sea blended together. While attending George mastered the Yak-11 and MiG-15. After the exam he passed the Kronstadt naval practice sailing "Sedov" battleship "October Revolution" and the cruiser "Admiral Makarov" to familiarize themselves with the forces, which have to interact. Then, in 1954, he was sent for further training in the Naval Aviation School of the Order of Lenin named Stalin's North Caucasian Military District.
In 1957. Shonin graduated from college with some excellent grades in the rank of lieutenant and was sent to the service to the Baltic in the 935 th Fighter Regiment AirForce forces of the Baltic Fleet. A year Shonin is a senior airman. In March 1958 he was transferred to 768 th Fighter Regiment Northern Fleet Air Force. That's where Georgi Shonin became acquainted with the future of the planet the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who served with the neighboring 769-th regiment, stationed in the village Luostari-New Murmansk region. From the same and Shonin and Gagarin were sent to Moscow for medical recruitment Even cosmonaut they were enrolled by one order of Commander of the Air Force March 7, 1960. Here is recalled Shonin Yuri Gagarin: "In simple communication. Strong-willed, direct, honest. What is thinking - in itself does not contain. If you do not like it, respect it cuts directly to us. He flew well and in simple and complex conditions, and find other hard, the last shirt give.. ". Nevertheless, the friends they have not.
In April 1961,. Shonin completed cosmonaut training in September and was included in the leading group of astronauts for flights on the first ships of a series of "East". By this time, Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov, had already flew. Instead, preparations were brought Georgi Shonin and Boris Volynov. During October, he walked directly to a single training flight, and since November preparing for the first group of two manned space flight, first as a backup, and then as a backup pilot.
In June 1962. unexpected happened. When preparations for the group flight has been completed and was nearing the astronauts prepared in maintenance mode trenirovannosti, waiting for production of two ships, Shonin's health failed. He was removed from the training and backup for Pavel Popovich on Vostok-4 "was appointed Vladimir Komarov.
Only in 1965. Shonin was fully rehabilitated and who knows what would have been his fate if not for this disease.
In May 1965. he is re-direct training as the commander of one of the "Sunrise". Together with Boris Vopynovym he even passed a comprehensive training program for 15-20 daily long flight ZKV? 6 ( 'Sunrise-3). But again failure of it does not depend Everything was ready, but in May 1966. The state commission canceled a flight, finding that he did not give science, and soon the entire program Sunrise was closed.
Some time Georgi Shonin was preparing for a promising program "Almaz", because for the first flights on Soyuz crews have been formed after the tragic death of Vladimir Komarov in April 1967. Georgi Shonin included in the training program of docking two spacecraft "Soyuz", and in January 1969, he was a double by Vladimir Shatalov, who has successfully completed the mission and docked with the Soyuz-5 ".
Intense preparation for the flight did not prevent Georgi Shonin graduated with honors in 1968. Air Force Engineering Academy named after Zhukovsky and gain a qualification, pilot-cosmonaut-engineer ".
Then the new training - Vasily Mishin decided to surprise the world flight of three ships to the interface of two of them and taking pictures of this process with the third ship. The commander of the first of three ships assigned flight engineer Georgi Shonin in the crew put his age - an engineer TSKBEM (so called royal OKB-1). His first and only space flight Georgi Shonin made from 11 to 16 October 1969 as commander of spacecraft "Soyuz-6". During the flight experiment was carried out "Torch" for the visual detection of ballistic missile launches, . tested different methods of welding and cutting metals in space, . and this little experiment did not lead to leakage of domestic compartment due to beam defocusing, . which burned table, . a fixed installation on it,
. But the flight was without spacesuits. Photography spacecraft "Soyuz-7 and 8 has not been implemented not only because of its abolition, but also because of the inexact craft went into orbit. Mission duration was 4 days 22 hours 42 min 47 sec Callsign Antey 1 ". Shonin were 17 Soviet cosmonaut cosmonaut and 39 of the world.
During flight Shonin was awarded the honorary title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the title of pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR ". He was awarded the Order of Lenin, he was given the rank of colonel, and qualifications Cosmonaut 3rd Class.
Immediately after the flight and a brief rest Shonin began preparations for a new program of flights to the space station DOS (hereinafter "Salute"). As one of the most experienced cosmonauts Georgi Shonin instructed to lead the first crew, which included twice flown Alexey Eliseev and having no experience spaceflight Mykola Rukavishnikov. They had to render habitable the world's first orbiting stations (DOS) "Zarya" (only after the successful launch it was renamed "Salute").
All went well, but on Feb. 5, 1971, Mr.. George went for a series of misfortunes. It all started with the fact that he "just slept through" training on the ship, passing tests in Kise TSKBEM. And, as a consequence, the removal of the preparation. There followed a psychological breakdown as a result of prolonged liver in hospital. Only in March Shonin returned from the hospital, and concluded: "Needs long-term treatment in the sanatorium" totally deprived of hope for a return to training.
Georgi Shonin appointed to the position of non-flying chief of the CPC. Now he had to provide training for the astronauts to a military program "Almaz and Soyuz-VI". But, apparently, this string of bad luck did not end. In June 1973, Mr.. he became an instructor-cosmonaut Division, which led to the cosmonaut training program EPAS, and in April 1974. "peak" in the life Shonin reached its lowest point: he was removed from his post as instructor.
Another could not stand, can not cope with the blows of fate, but Georgi Shonin found the strength to start a "new" life. The initiative, decisiveness, responsibility for assignments that are characteristic for George, appeared in an extreme situation with renewed force, and it could not remain unnoticed began climbing to new heights.
In January 1976. appointed immediately by the head of department CTC, and now Shonin lay the responsibility for all the training base of the Center Furthermore, he again became a senior instructor-cosmonaut and a leading engineer-test.
In October 1977. Georgi Shonin given the rank of Major-General "- a rare case when one considers that the position of head of the CPC colonel. In the same year, George Stepanovich made a unique step in the declassification of "supersekretnogo" Soviet Space. In his book "The very first" first time he spoke about nepoletevshih first cosmonaut detachment. Calling only by name, he talked about how tragic formed their fate. For many years it remained the sole reference. The book won first prize in the competition named after N. Ostrovsky, and has been translated into other languages.
In April 1979, after 19 years of service in the squad of cosmonauts, Georgi Shonin left CTC.
Another 11 years Georgy Stepanovich continued service in the aviation. During this time he was deputy commander of the Air Force, headed by one of the military SRI. Only in November 1990. Georgi Shonin was transferred to the reserve by age with the rank of lieutenant. Such heights have not reached many of the astronauts. For service to the Motherland Shonin was awarded the Order of Labor Red Banner, Order of Red Star and many medals.
On the night of 6 April 1997. at his home in Star City, died of a heart attack Hero of the Soviet Union, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR, Lieutenant-General stock Georgi Shonin.
Georgi Shonin loved life in all its manifestations. And everyone loved him. All who knew George Stepanovich, felt an acute sense of loss when he died.
"He walks slowly, throwing his left arm behind his back, exposing an open, bold face winds blowing from the east. Goes towards the sun ... He goes to immortality ... "- so wrote Shonin about Yuri Gagarin, but these words can be entirely attributed to the cosmonaut Georgi Shonin.
All who knew George Stepanovich will never forget his eyes looking at the world of fun and a little amazed. He loved to wander through the woods, singing Ukrainian songs and was a man of generous soul.
The eternal memory of Georgi Shonin will live forever in the history of the world's space.
The funeral was held April 9 d.Leoniha Cemetery near Star City.