DENIKIN Anton Ivanovich( Russia military leader)
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Biography DENIKIN Anton Ivanovich
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was born December 4, 1872. in d. Shpetal Dolny, zavislinskom suburb Wloclawska, the district town of Warsaw Province. Preserved metric entry reads: "Sim to annex the church press testify, . that in the register е│owicz Baptist Church for the parish in 1872 act of baptism baby Anthony, . son of a retired Major Ivan Efimov Denikin, . Orthodox faith, . and his lawful wife, . Elizabeth Fedorova, . Roman Catholic confession, . written as follows: in the run-born male sex? 33rd, . Time of birth: one thousand eight hundred and seventy second year, . December of the fourth day,
. Baptism: the same year and month of December twenty-fifth day ".
His father - Ivan Efimovich Denikin (1807 - 1885) - came from the serfs d. Orekhovka Saratov province. 27-mi years old, he was handed over to the army and landowner in 22 years "of Nicholas' life was promoted the rank of sergeant, and in 1856. exam on the officer's rank (as he wrote later AI. Denikin, "" officer exam, "for that time is very simple: reading and writing, the four rules of arithmetic, knowledge of military regulations and pismovodstva and the Law of God"). Manufactured in ensigns, he was appointed to the service first in Kalisz, and then - the Alexander team of border guards, who stood in Wе┌ocе┌awek. In 1869, Mr.. retired with the rank of Major.
His mother - Elizabeth Frantsiskovna (Feodorovna) Vrzhesinskaya (1843 - 1916) - a Polish woman, came from a family of impoverished petty gentry. I.E. Denikin married her second marriage in 1871. (the first marriage in the family do not remember).
The family consisted of five people - Ivan Efimovich, Elizabeth Feodorovna, Anton's grandfather (the father of Anton's mother) and the nurse Polosya (Apolonia) - lived in poverty. In 1882, Mr.. Anton studied at е│owicz Real School. After his father died in 1885. he was forced to do tutoring.
Choosing a military career, after graduating college in July 1890. he joined a volunteer in the 1 st Infantry Regiment, and in autumn he entered the military instituted a course of Kiev infantry cadet school. In August 1892, successfully completing the course, was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant and sent to the service in the 2 nd field artillery brigade, standing in Mr.. Bela (Siedlce province).
Autumn 1895. Denikin was admitted to the Academy of General Staff, but the final examination for the 1-year student won the required number of points for transfer to the 2-year student and returned to the brigade. In 1896, Mr.. enrolled in the academy again.
At this time, Denikin was carried away by literary works. In 1898, Mr.. military magazine "Scout" was published his first story about the life brigade. Thus began his active work in the military journalism, he regularly printed stories and essays about daily life, customs and military episodes of the Russian army under the pseudonym "And. Nochin ".
Spring 1899. Denikin graduated from the Academy on the 1 st category. However, the Academy had started the new chief of general Sukhotin with the blessing of the Minister of War AN. Kuropatkin change encompasses, inter alia, and the order of scoring the recruited graduates, he was expelled from the already established list listed as a General Staff. Believing that his legal rights unjustly violated, he said, in strict accordance with the disciplinary rules, filed a complaint addressed to the emperor. Academic authorities had pressured him, demanding to recognize the "false claim" and threatened with dismissal from service. But Denikin, piously believing in the justice of the emperor, stood firm on his. Nevertheless it when the officers made final in the next rank, in the same order made in the rank of captain
. At the traditional reception for the graduates of military academies of the Emperor, . when Nicholas II came to Denikin, . standing in a number of officers, . not award identity as, . Kuropatkin explained, . that "this officer, . Sire, . not counted among the General Staff of the character ",
. Nicholas II made that decision for granted, and stayed at Denikin "heavy sediment at heart and disappointment: the" truth will monarch "".
Spring 1900. Denikin returned to continue his service in the 2 nd field artillery brigade. When feelings about the apparent injustice somewhat subsided, from Bela, he wrote a personal letter to the Minister of War Kuropatkinu summarizing "the whole truth about what happened". In his confession, he was not expecting an answer, "simply wanted to unburden". Suddenly, in late December 1901. from the headquarters of the Warsaw Military District, the news came on including it to the General Staff.
In July 1902. Denikin was appointed a senior aide of staff 2 nd Infantry Division, stationed at Brest-Litovsk.
Since October 1902. October 1903. He was serving a property-owning company of command the 183rd Infantry Regiment Pultusk stationed in Warsaw. Since October 1903. served as a senior aide staff the 2 nd Cavalry Corps.
Since the beginning of the war with Japan Denikin gave a report on the transfer to the army. In March 1904,. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel and sent to the headquarters of 9-Third Army Corps, where he was assigned as Chief of Staff of the 3rd Brigade Zaamurskogo border guards, protecting the railway line between Harbin and Vladivostok. In September 1904,. was transferred to the headquarters of the Manchurian army, was appointed staff officer for special assignments at the headquarters of the 8 th Army Corps and assumed the post of Chief of Staff Transbaikalian Cossack Division of General P.K. Rennenkampf. Participated in the Battle of Mukden. Later served as Chief of Staff of the Ural-Transbaikalian Cossack Division. In August 1905. was appointed Chief of Staff of the Consolidated Cavalry Corps under General PI. Mishchenko; for combat differences promoted to the rank of colonel.
In January 1906. Denikin was appointed staff officer for special assignments in the headquarters of the 2 nd Cavalry Corps (Warsaw), May - September 1906. commanded a battalion of 228 Infantry Regiment Reserve Khvalin, in December 1906. transferred to the post of Chief of Staff, 57 th Infantry Brigade Reserve (Saratov), in June 1910. appointed commander of the 17 th Infantry Regiment, Arkhangelsk, standing in Zhitomir.
In March 1914. Denikin was assigned the duties of the general instructions for when the commander of the Kiev military district and in June promoted to the rank of Major-General. Later, remembering how it began for the Great War, he wrote: "The Chief of Staff of the Kiev military district, General In. Dragomirov was on holiday in the Caucasus, the general on duty, too. I replaced the latter, and to my inexperienced shoulders lay mobilization and formation of the three staffs and all the institutions - the South-Western Front, 3 rd and 8 th Army.
In August 1914, Mr.. Denikin was appointed Quartermaster General of 8 th Army, commanded by General AA. Brusilov. It is with great relief passed its temporary office in Kiev headquarters returned from leave the general on duty and was able to immerse themselves in the study of the deployment and tasks, the upcoming 8 th Army. As the Quartermaster General, he participated in the first operations 8 th Army in Galicia. But the staff work, according to his confession, he was not satisfied: "The composition of the directives, disposition and boring, though important, staff technique I preferred to direct participation in combat operation, with its profound and exciting experiences of the dangers"
. And when he learned, . that relieved the Chief 4 th Infantry Brigade, . He did everything, . to go in order: "Get in command of such a fine team was the limit of my desires, . and I turned to: the general Brussilov, . asking him to release me and to appoint a team,
. After some negotiations, agreement was given, and 6 September, I was appointed commander of the 4 th Infantry Brigade ".
The fate of iron sharpshooters was the fate of Denikin. During the time he received the command of almost all the awards George statute. Participated in the Carpathian battle 1915. In April, 1915. "Iron" Brigade was reformed in the 4 th Infantry ( "Iron") division. As part of 8 th Army Division took part in the Lviv and Lutsk operations. September 24, 1915, Mr.. Division took Lutsk, and Denikin for Military Merit was prematurely promoted to lieutenant general. In July 1916. in Brusilovsky breakthrough division took Luck again.
In September 1916. He was appointed commander of the 8 th Army Corps, who was fighting on the Rumanian Front.
In February, 1917. Denikin was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff, Supreme Commander of the Russian army (Mogilev), . May - commander of the armies of the Western Front (headquarters in Minsk), . in June - Assistant Chief of Staff, Supreme Commander, . in late July - commander of the armies of South-Western Front (headquarters in Berdichev),
After the February Revolution, Denikin, to the extent possible resisted democratization of the army: in the "democracy rallies," of soldiers' committees and fraternization with the enemy, he saw only the "collapse" and "decomposition". He defended the officers from violence by soldiers, demanded the imposition of the death penalty at the front and rear, supported plans for the Supreme Commander, General L.G. Kornilov to establish the country's military dictatorship to suppress the revolutionary movement, the elimination of the Soviets and the continuation of War. He did not conceal his views publicly and firmly defending the interests of the army, as he understood them, and dignity of Russian officers, that made his name popular among the officers.
"Kornilov mutiny" put an end to the military career of Denikin in the ranks of the old Russian army: on the order of the head of the Provisional Government п░.п╓. Kerensky, he was sacked and arrested on August 29. After a month of content on Garrison guardhouse Berdychev 27 - 28 September he was transferred to Mr.. Bychaе╜ (Mogilev province), where the prisoners Kornilov and other participants in the rebellion ". 19 November on the orders of Chief of Staff Supreme Allied Commander, General NN. Dukhonin was released along with Kornilov and the other, then went to the Don.
In Novocherkassk, Rostov and Denikin took part in the formation of the Volunteer Army and the leadership of its operations for the protection of the center of the Don region, which M.V. Alekseev L.G. Kornilov seen as a base of anti-Bolshevik struggle. In a situation where relations between the two leaders of volunteering were extremely tense, he did not conceal his indignation, when tensions grew into an open quarrel between them. Dear and Alekseev and Kornilov in principle and honesty, he retained with both good service and personal relationships, which allowed him to remove the contradictions between them in the cause.
December 25, 1917, Mr.. in Novocherkassk Denikin married first marriage to Xenia Vassilyevna Siskin (1892 - 1973), daughter of General VI. Chizha, friend and colleague on 2 nd Field Artillery Brigade. The wedding took place in a church on the outskirts of Novocherkassk in the presence of only a few of the closest.
In February 1918, before he took the army in the 1 st Ice March, Kornilov appointed him as his deputy. March 31 (April 13), 1918, after the death of Kornilov during the unsuccessful assault Yekaterinodar Denikin assumed command of the Volunteer Army. He managed to save the army has suffered heavy losses, to avoid encirclement and destruction, and bring it to the south of the Don Region. There, thanks to the fact that the Don Cossacks rose in arms against the Soviets, he was able to give the army a rest and recharge it through the influx of new volunteers - the officers and Kuban Cossacks.
Together with his chief of staff and close friend of General п≤.п÷. Romanovsky, Denikin believed that the Bolsheviks to be expelled in the first place from the territory of the Kuban, the rich human and material resources. First, it could have been prevented occupation of Germanic troops, and secondly, the North Caucasus was to serve the army base in the fight against Bolshevism in Russia scale. He managed to convince of the correctness of their strategic views M.V. Alexeyev, who was more inclined to move on Tsaritsyn, based on information that the Allies intended to recreate on the Volga, the Eastern Front against Germany and the Bolsheviks.
Redefined and filled up the army, Denikin in June moved her to 2 nd Ice March.
By the end of September, the Volunteer Army, inflicting several defeats of the Red Army of the North Caucasus, has taken the flat part of the Kuban region with Ekaterinodar, and part of Stavropol and the Black Sea provinces of Novorossiysk. The army suffered heavy losses due to acute shortage of arms and ammunition replenished by inflow of Cossack volunteers and supplying Captures. A sufficient quantity of arms and ammunition could be obtained in Ukraine by establishing a Don Ataman P.N. Krasnov alliance with Hetman PP. Skoropadsky. But unlike Krasnov and Denikin Skoropadsky not admit the thought of the victory of Germany and the orientation, even temporarily, at her betrayal of allies in the Entente. While cooperation with Skoropadsky and command Germanic troops, . occupied the Ukraine and part of the Don Region, . opened the possibility of obtaining supplies from the warehouses of the former Russian army in Ukraine, . He flatly refused this, . relying on an ambulance allies,
. Denikin was convinced, . that the command of the Volunteer Army and created in her temporary organs of civil government as representing "all of Russia" has the right to subjugate all the armed forces and civilian staff of the Cossack areas - the Don and Kuban,
. But Don Krasnov refused to hand over part of the Don in the Volunteer Army, focusing on the support of Germany, . he tried to chip the Don region, . and with it the entire North Caucasus, . from Russia, . created on their territory of the Cossack Union of Independent States,
A Kuban authorities, for their part, defending the "sovereignty" of the Kuban region, periodically raised the issue of withdrawal from the Volunteer Army of the Kuban Cossack units and the formation of a separate Kuban Army. In this wing of their desire for independence at least in domestic policy. "Separatist" Kuban authorities dictated by a desire to protect the victims of the Cossacks, . imminent in the case of their participation in the march on Moscow ", . and restrict the supply of the Volunteer Army from the Kuban resources for the speedy elimination of it from economic ruin,
For Denikin was not peculiar to compromise their beliefs. Opposed to the "chameleons and reptiles," he reacted to all directly and frankly, people expressing "a lot of harsh truth". In relations with the Cossack rulers of his unwillingness to "compromise the principles of" (an expression of Denikin himself) led to sharp conflict with Krasnov and tensions with the Kuban Government.
In view M.V. Alexeyev, the inflexibility of Denikin in relations with Krasnov is very harmful to the common cause
. However, Denikin realism, . refusing, . against monarchical sentiments of the majority of officers, . of the proclamation to the army restoration of the monarchy in Russia, . because, . as Alekseev, . understood, . that the Cossacks, . and especially the peasant population, . opposed monarchy,
September 25 (October 8), 1918, after the death of the "supreme leader" of the army general M.V. Alexeyev, Denikin assumed the post of Chief of the Volunteer Army.
In November 1918, when after the defeat of Germany's army and the allied fleet appeared in the south of Russia, Denikin could resolve the issues of supply (primarily through trade credits, the UK government). On the other hand, under pressure from allies Krasnov in December 1918. agreed to subordinate Don Denikin in operational terms (in February 1919. he resigned). As a result, Denikin united in their hands the command of the Volunteer and Don armies, December 26 (January 8, 1919), adopting the title of Commander of the armed forces in the south of Russia (VSYUR)
. By this time the Volunteer Army heavy losses in personnel (especially among the officers, volunteers) completed the purification of the Bolsheviks of the North Caucasus, . Denikin, and they began to move parts of the north: to help defeat Don brooks army and launch a broad offensive in the center of Russia,
In this regard, he was faced with extremely complicated task management to expand the territory.
Sharply critical of the old imperial bureaucracy, Denikin at the same time exclude the involvement of civilian rule Socialists (the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks). So he made a major stake in the representatives of the Cadet Party (NI. Astrov, MM. Fedorov and others). Force at its special meeting (zakonosoveschatelny and administrative body) consisted of senior chiefs VSYUR and heads of civilian agencies. However, the work of civil administration machinery was extremely inefficient due to bureaucracy and corruption of officials, both central and local institutions.
Concentrated in his hands an enormous power, Denikin, a man of high morals and deep religious, do not let vanity and ambition take precedence over a. Although the eye entourage called him "King Anton", he harbored no far-reaching plans for its own guests. He often spoke of his desire after the liberation of Russia from the Bolsheviks "to retire to rest and to plant cabbage". In June 1919, believing that it is in the interests of Russia, he voluntarily submitted to Admiral AV. Kolchak, and declared itself the supreme ruler of Russia and the supreme commander, though many members of the Special Council felt it was inappropriate for reasons of domestic politics.
In February 1919. Denikin's daughter, Marina. He was very attached to family.
Calling Denikin "King Anton", his closest associates partly ironic kindly. There is nothing "royal" or his appearance or in manners was.
Of medium height, stocky, slightly located to the completeness, with a kind face and a little rough in a low voice, he was distinguished by naturalness, openness and frankness. He charmed people ease of communication, kindness and a little sly smile. With him I could speak openly about anything and quite easily.
The most astute interlocutors, however, noticed that the commander in chief VSYUR perceived the arguments and be influenced only those close to him of people he trusts unconditionally. First of all - the influence of General Romanovsky. But the advice and recommendations of others, he did not attach sufficient importance. Generally, despite the intelligence and talent, military and literary, it is not always perceive life in all its complexity and contradictions. According to the book. VA. Obolensky, he was extremely outspoken in his feelings, attitudes and judgments. Once having mastered them, he remained so faithful to the end, even if life at every turn gave him his disappointment ".
In life he was distinguished by remarkable modesty and unpretentious: he lived on one salary, wearing a shabby and faded uniforms.
In July, seeking to be closer to the center of events, as well as the oppressive atmosphere of conflict Yekaterinodar Denikin moved its headquarters to Taganrog. A special meeting of the central administration and later moved to Rostov. Headquartered in rich, loose and full of temptations Rostov he would not, preferring the provincial modesty and silence Taganrog. The fall of the Romanov family Denikins and sometimes traveled together on short rest for the city, gathering in the surrounding oak acorns, which are then milled and drink instead of coffee, too expensive for them.
Begun in the spring of 1919. VSYUR offensive on a broad front developed successfully: in the summer - early autumn in three armies VSYUR (Volunteer, Don and the Caucasus) were occupied territories to the line Odessa - Kiev - Kursk - Voronezh - Tsaritsyn. The book published in July Denikin "Moscow directive" puts each army specific tasks to engage in Moscow
. An effort to maximize the early occupation of the territory, . Denikin (as he maintained his Chief of Staff General Romanovsky), . attempted, . first, . deprive the Bolshevik government the most important areas of fuel extraction and production of grain, . industrial and railway centers, . sources of replenishment of the Red Army human and horse composition and, . secondly, . use all this for the supply, . updating and further development VSYUR,
However, the expansion of the territory led to the aggravation of the economic, social and political problems.
Denikin was convinced that free trade should create conditions for economic recovery and the establishment of supplying the army with everything necessary: equipment, food, forage, horses, etc.. For the cost of supplying the army, he considers it extremely important to start manufacturing its own paper rubles VSYUR. Of the newly printed money traders and industrialists were given considerable credit for the establishment of production and procurement of all necessary. But in terms of freedom of trade they chose not to restore production and export Russia's raw materials abroad, and to speculate on the domestic market imported goods.
Repeatedly said that all his property - a "uniform and a salary, Denikin was sensitive to the manifestations of class selfishness on the part of the business community, the rapid growth of speculation, bribery and embezzlement in the rear. On his orders, was developed by the stern law against speculation, which proved to be ineffective because of bureaucracy and corruption in the central and local authorities. He bitterly regrets his impotence, because speculation, bribery and embezzlement were fed the rising tide of ruin, the devaluation of the ruble and rising prices, and most importantly - provided the corrupting influence of the army.
In the agrarian policy Denikin sincerely sought to "ensure the interests of the peasants, seized in late 1917 - early 1918. landlords' land: leave in their possession a large portion (up to 4 / 5) harvest 1919. and start giving them land, partly expropriated from large owners to enforce, for the redemption. However, pressure from landowners promeshalo The special meeting to adopt a law on land reform.
In this situation, the peasants of southern Russia was estimated power Denikin's not on his promises, and based primarily on the burdens of mobilization, requisition and duties of the army. Farms were ruined, had neither manpower nor the horses, so the peasants for the most part did not want any part of the supplement VSYUR, nor provide them. Typically, farmers, hoping the arrival of white to get rid of the surplus of the Bolshevik, greeted them kindly. But few wanted to fight, and nobody wanted to accept depreciated paper money in payment for the horses, grain, livestock and food. So part VSYUR have all too often resort to forced conscription and requisitions. As a result, goodwill quickly disappeared and gave way to hostility.
In terms of inflation and the collapse of supplies forced requisition quickly resulted in massive looting of the population, with part of the loot officers were taken to the rear for speculation. All attempts to Denikin and his staff deal with looting in the army were in vain. Robberies, . one hand, . demoralized army, . converting part of the officers of the soldiers in the marauders and profiteers, . the other - cause acute public dissatisfaction, . that caused the desertion mobilized peasants and the growth of the insurgency in the rear,
It was not possible to find a compromise with Denikin Cossack Governments. As a result of its civil authority over the territory of the Cossack regions virtually no spread. The most acute conflict - from Kuban - in November, was allowed to use force and punishment of the leaders of the "separatist" (supporters of the separation of the Kuban from Russia), which led to the rapid expansion of the Kuban parts.
In relations with the Entente Denikin strongly defended the interests of Russia, but its ability to resist selfish actions of Great Britain and France in the south of Russia have been extremely limited. On the other hand, financial aid allies was insufficient: Part VSYUR experiencing a chronic shortage of weapons, ammunition, equipment, uniforms and equipment.
As a result, the growth of economic ruin, disintegration of the army, the hostility of the population and the rebel movement in the rear in October - November 1919. Significant changes occurred in the course of the war on the Southern Front. Army and army group VSYUR suffered a heavy defeat against superior numbers of their armies of the Soviet Southern and South-Eastern Front of Orel, Kursk, Kiev, Kharkov, Voronezh. By January 1920,. VSYUR retreated with heavy losses in the area of Odessa, the Crimea and the territory of the Don and Kuban. Officers of the army and rear "public" main culprit lesions considered the Chief of Staff of the Commander in Chief General VSYUR п≤.п÷. Romanovsky and "entrenched" in the Special Meeting of Cadets.
At the same time right-wing forces (monarchist generals and politicians of the right-wing, as AV. Krivoshein) actively preparing the offset from the post of Commander in Chief of Denikin VSYUR, putting forward as a successor General P.N. Wrangel, commander of the Caucasian Army.
By the end of 1919. Wrangel criticism of policies and strategies Denikin led to a sharp conflict between them. The actions of Wrangel, Denikin saw not just a violation of military discipline, but also undermining the authority. In February 1920,. he dismissed Wrangell from the army.
12 - 14 (25 - 27) in March 1920, Mr.. Denikin had evacuated the remains VSYUR from Novorossiysk to the Crimea. Bitterly seeing (including a report from the commander of the Volunteer Corps, General A.P. Kutepova) that the officers of volunteer units no longer trust him, Denikin, crushed morale, March 21 (3 April) convened a war council to elect a new Commander in Chief VSYUR. Since the Board has nominated Wrangel, Denikin, March 22 (4 April) its latest order appointed him commander in chief VSYUR.
The same evening, the destroyer of the British Navy "Emperor of India" had brought him and his companions, among whom was General Romanovsky, of Theodosius in Constantinople. Since the departure from the Crimea, he was considered a guest of the British Government and was under the auspices of the UK. Extremely sensitive to monetary matters, he found himself in a strange land with almost no means. All his cash "capital" amounted to: 23 thousand. "royal" (paper) rub., a few hundred "Kerensky", a small number of Austrian crowns and Turkish lira, 10-penny coin minting Dignity 1916. the amount of 49 rubles. All this translated into hard currency equal to less than 13 f.st. And his dependents were nine people: a daughter, Marina, . her nurse, . wife Ksenia V., . her grandfather and mother with a second husband, Colonel Ivanov, . Children of General Kornilov (daughter Natalia Lavrovna and young son Yuri) and the girl Nadia Kolokolova, . whose father commanded the regiment until Arkhangelogorodskaya Denikin and that after the death of his parents he sheltered in his,
April 5, the day of arrival in Constantinople, in the building of the Russian embassy was killed by General Romanovsky. Receiving the news, Denikin was the first time in my life lost consciousness. After the memorial service, April 6 at the dreadnought "Marlborough" him and his companions British commanders sent to England.
In London, a group of Denikin "arrived by train from Southampton 17 April 1920, Mr.. The London newspaper noted the arrival of Denikin respectful articles. "Times" devoted to it the following lines: "The arrival in England of General Denikin, . valiant, . Although unhappy commander of the armed forces, . which are fully supported in the South of Russia allied business, . should not pass unnoticed by those, . who recognize and appreciate his service, . and then, . that he tried to implement for the benefit of their country and organized freedom,
. Without fear or reproach, with a chivalrous spirit, truthful and direct, General Denikin - one of the most noble figures put forward by the war. He is now seeking refuge among us, and asks only to be given the right to rest from his labors in a quiet home environment of England:
. Denikin, really wanted one thing: to settle in any provincial English town away from London, to be left alone, and rest
. From the British public figures he has visited only in. Churchill, many do for the material assistance VSYUR
Rest, however, was not. First, many sympathizers of the emigrants, politics and public figures were unwilling to accept his position as a private person. Secondly, the chronically absent livelihood.
The leader of the Cadets P.N. Miliukov persistently tried to convince him that he, Denikin, "is a symbol and flag, which can not be omitted, and therefore he should accept Russia's Kolchak, meticulously questioned about the situation in Crimea and its relationship with Wrangel. Denikin's answer to this, that after all that has happened can not be considered a head of government, is just a private person, does not want to engage in politics and wants to be left alone. "Do not bother Wrangel, maybe he would do something, - he said. - I want to get away from politics, do not interfere me ".
Money question was much sharper. Denikin literally nothing. At home he wore his military uniform and went out, put on a military waterproof raincoat (no shoulder strap allows), and head curtains purchased "on the occasion of" plaid cap. Miliukov suggested that somehow at first to Denikin, talk to the head of the issuance of allocations from the former Russian state amounts that were in foreign banks at the disposal of Russian ambassadors. Denikin said that this is out of the question, because money treasury, and he - a private person.
He refused and the British proposal to settle in one of the estates and live there for free. He sickened take "alms" from even a "good ally" of Great Britain. In an unpublished diary he wrote: "I do not understand our situation - took space in an expensive hotel" Cadogan ". Looking for a cheap house in a secluded place ".
Soon relatively cheap housing in the province had been found, and the family Denikins finally moved from London, first in Pevensi Bay, and then in Eastbourne (East Sussex). Nevertheless, it was decided to move to the fall in Belgium, where life was cheaper. However, in August there have been events that precipitated the departure of.
In mid-August, "Times" published a note, sent by Lord J. Curzon in Moscow, the Foreign Commissariat GV. Chicherin in early April, which contained a proposal to stop military actions against the White troops of General Wrangel, entrenched in the Crimea. In a note, inter alia, said: "I have used all its influence on General Denikin, . to persuade him to quit the fight, . promised him, . what, . if he will do, . I do all efforts, . to make peace between his forces and your, . ensuring the integrity of all his associates, ,
. General Denikin eventually followed this advice and left Russia, transferring command to General Wrangel.
This statement shocked Denikin. The eve of "Novorossiysk disaster" he did visit the General Bridge, . Member of the British Military Mission, . proposed mediation of the British government to conclude a truce with the Red Army, . to which he replied in one word: "Never!",
. To the Editor was sent a sharp rebuttal, and 27 August it was published
. "I am deeply outraged by this statement, . - Denikin wrote, . - And say: 1) that no influence, Lord Curzon, to me he could not, . as I am with him in any relationship was not located, and 2) that the proposal (the British military representative to the Armistice), I categorically reject and, . Although the loss of material, . translated the army in the Crimea, . which immediately proceeded to continue the fight, and 3) note that the British government to begin peace negotiations with the Bolsheviks was, . is known, . presented is not me, . and my successor in command of the Armed Forces of South Russia, General Wrangel, . negative response which was at one time published in the press, and 4) that my departure from the post of Commander in Chief was summoned to the complex causes, . but no connection with the policy of Lord Curzon had,
. As before, so now, I think the inevitable and necessary armed struggle against the Bolsheviks until their defeat. Otherwise, not only Russia but the whole of Europe will turn to ruins ".
At the same time the British government, seeking to establish trade relations with Russia, beginning in London on negotiations with the Soviet delegation that Denikin regarded as a preparation for the recognition of the Bolshevik SNK legitimate government of Russia.
As a result, he considered it impossible to remain any longer in England and moved to Belgium.
Belgium Denikins lived a little longer - since August 1920. until May 1922, which removed a small house with a garden in the vicinity of Brussels. In June 1922. they moved to Hungary, where they lived first near Mr.. Sopron, Budapest and then in Balatonlelle. In Belgium and Hungary Denikin wrote the most significant of his works - "Sketches of Russian turmoil, representing both memory and research on the history of the Revolution and Civil War in Russia.
Spring 1926. Denikin and his family moved to France where he settled in Paris, the center of Russian emigration. Literary and social activities, promoting "defensist" position, denied the union of immigrants with a foreign country, which would have committed aggression against Russia with the aim of conquest and dismemberment
. In the mid 30-ies., . when some part of the emigration spread hope for the imminent "liberation" of Russia army of Nazi Germany, . in his articles and speeches Denikin actively denounced Hitler's aggressive plans, . calling it "the worst enemy of Russia and Russian people",
. He argued the need to support the Red Army in the event of war, predicting that after the defeat of Germany it is "to overthrow the communist government" in Russia
. "Do not cling to the specter of intervention, . - He wrote, . - Do not believe in the crusade against the Bolsheviks, . For simultaneously with the suppression of communism in Germany is a question not about the suppression of Bolshevism in Russia, . and on the "eastern program" Hitler, . who only dreams of capturing the south of Russia to German colonization,
I recognize the bitterest enemies of Russia Power, dreamed about it topic. I think any foreign invasion of predatory objectives - scourge. And resist the enemy of the Russian people, the Red Army and emigration - their imperious duty ".
In 1935. he conveyed to the Russian foreign Historical Archive in Prague, part of his personal archives include documents and materials he used while working on "Sketches of Russian Troubles".
In May 1940. in connection with the occupation of France Germanic troops Denikin and his wife moved to the Atlantic coast and settled in the d. MIMIZAN around Bordeaux (daughter Marina stayed in Paris, and on behalf of associates Denikin sent him food parcels). At the invitation of the German command to move to Germany and in good physical conditions to continue the historical and literary work, he said no.
In June 1945,. Denikin returned to Paris and then, for fear of forced deportation in the Soviet Union, six months later moved to the U.S. with his wife (daughter Marina stayed in France). As the family legend, when Denikin was going down the gangway from the ship in New York in his pocket was 8 dollars.
Some time Denikins lived in New York, where he continued his literary work. They were written in his memoirs "The Way of the Russian officer" and the book "The Second World War, Russia and abroad" (both books were completed), and "libel against the White movement (response to the work of General NN. Golovin Rossiyskaya counterrevolution ").
Do not interrupted and its socio-political activity: 11 June 1946. he sent to the Governments of Great Britain and the United States note-memorandum "Russian Question". Analyzing the internal situation in the Soviet Union, he noted that although the Soviet Government a third world war and is not desirable, world revolution remained the ultimate goal of communism and Stalin's government will try "to blow up the world from the inside". He particularly stressed: "If the Western democracies, provoked Bolshevism, would have had to give him a rebuff, unacceptable to the coalition protivobolshevistskaya repeated mistake of Hitler's capital, resulting in the defeat of Germany. The war must be waged not against Russia, but only for the overthrow of Bolshevism. We must not confuse the USSR and Russia, the Soviet regime with the Russian people, the executioner and the victim. If war begins against Russia, for its division and balkanization (Ukraine, the Caucasus), or for rejection of the Russian lands, the Russian people accept such a war again as the Great Patriotic War ".
August 7, 1947, 75 th year of life, Denikin died from a second heart attack in hospital of the University of Michigan (Mr.. Ann Arbor). His last words addressed to his wife Xenia Vassilyevna were: "Behold, I will not see how Russia will be saved".
After the funeral service in the Assumption Church, he was buried with full military honors (as a former commander of one of the allied armies during World War I), first at a military cemetery Evergreen (r. Detroit). December 15, 1952, Mr.. his remains were moved to the Russian cemetery SW. Vladimir in Jackson (New Jersey).
AI Denikin. Essays on Russian Disorders.
V.1. The collapse of the government and the army (February - September 1917). Vyp.1. Paris, 1921, No.2. Paris, 1921.
V.2. Fighting General Kornilov (August, 1917. - April 1918). Paris, 1922.
V.3. White movement and the struggle of the Volunteer Army (May - October 1918). Berlin, 1924.
V.4. Armed Forces of South Russia. Berlin, 1925.
T.5. Armed Forces of South Russia. Berlin, 1926.
AI Denikin. Officers. Paris, 1928.
AI Denikin. Old army. V.1. Paris, 1929, Vol.2. Paris, 1931.
AI Denikin. Russian question in the Far East. Paris, 1932.
AI Denikin. Brest-Litovsk. Paris, 1933.
AI Denikin. The international position of Russia and the emigration. Paris, 1933.
AI Denikin. Who saved the Soviet regime from death? Paris, 1937.
AI Denikin. World events and the Russian question. Paris, 1939.
AI Denikin. The way the Russian officer. New York, 1953.
|Denikin for DENIKIN Anton Ivanovich