Vera Obolensky Apollonovna( Princess)
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Biography Vera Obolensky Apollonovna
Vera Apollonovna Obolensky was born July 11, 1911, Mr.. family Baku vice-governor of Apollo Apollonovich Makarova. Her mother - Vera, nee Kolomnin. The family emigrated to France in 1920. and settled in Paris
Once in France at the age of 9 years, Vera was formed as a man both Russian and French culture. Received secondary education in French schools. With a phenomenal memory, love for learning did not differ, preferring her dance company and youth. All said in her spontaneity, impulsiveness, a tendency to adventurism and the ability to quickly dispose of his people through the visual attractiveness of the living and the mind. In 17 years she has joined the company of a young award-winning immigrant who unexpectedly received a large inheritance, has vowed to "run through the beautiful life" all the money, then suicide. He kept his word, and Vera Makarova was one of those who accompanied him to the cemetery. She worked as a fashion model first, then - a secretary at a successful Parisian businessman.
In 1937, Mr.. Vera married Nicholas Alexandrovich Obolensky and took the princely title.
Father Nicholas Obolensky, a former mayor of St. Petersburg, died in Paris in 1924. After his death, Nicholas became the senior representative of the kind of Prince Obolensky. Nicholas's mother - Salome, N., - was the daughter of lightly. kn. Dadiani-Mingrelian. Godson Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna and Grand. kn. Konstantin Konstantinovich, Nicholas, like his father, was a disciple of the Corps of Pages. After the Bolshevik seizure of power family immigrated to Finland, then moved to Nice, and later - in Paris. Nicholas graduated from the economics courses in Geneva. After his father's death, which coincided with the temporary loss of livelihood, he made an unsuccessful suicide attempt.
By the end of 30-ies. family affairs straightened. Thanks to income from real estate acquired in Nice, Nicholas Obolensky lived much better than the majority of emigrants from Russia. He did not trouble himself a permanent job, they said that he was one of the few Russian, who could ride in a taxi, not sitting behind the wheel. In addition, the State Bank of France kept Mingrelian ten boxes of treasures belonging to the princes Dadiani and exported from the Zugdidi palace of the socialist government of Georgia during the evacuation in 1921. Counsel Salome Nikolaevna felt that her rights as a direct and sole heir to these treasures are undeniable. And although the French authorities have delayed a decision on this issue, the situation has added Nicholas Obolensky and his young wife of confidence in its cloudless future.
In 1940, shortly after the German occupation of France, Vera Obolensky joined one of the underground circles, where she earned the nickname "Wiki". Well who knew her people assumed that her decision to join the ranks of the fighters against the invaders was the result of an emotional reaction to a passionate appeal to General de Gaulle's broadcast on the radio from London.
The first organizations was later Resistance Movement, created by people right-wing (Communists in Western Europe in the period between August 23 1939. and June 22, 1941. did not take organized action against Germany). The circle, which included the "Wiki", headed by Jacques Artyuis - a successful entrepreneur, with the 30-ies. consisting of one of France's extreme right-wing. Soon she became his chief confidant. At the end of 1940. Group Artyuisa teamed with the organization, led by Maxim Block Mascara, vice-chairman of the Confederation of knowledge workers. Companions Artyuisa sought to armed struggle, the grouping of the same block Mascara dealt primarily advocacy. Formed an alliance called Organisation Civile et Militaire - OSM ( "Civilian and military organization).
Over time, the organization has established a relationship with de Gaulle in London and became one of the largest and branched into the French Resistance. OSM engaged in intelligence activities, . organized the flight abroad of British prisoners of war, . weapons and preparing for the transition of reservists to active hostilities, . are scheduled to begin simultaneously with the Allied landings in France,
. Obolenskaya as General Secretary OSM took all the active participation. She was awarded the rank of lieutenant. She met with connected and representatives of the clandestine groups, gave them the task organization and took reports. It runs an extensive correspondence, copying secret documents, preparation of briefs.
By the beginning of the Second World War in France, lived about 50 thousand. Russian emigrants. Their attitude to participate actively in armed struggle with Germany have changed in the course of the war and depended on their social and political affiliation, area of residence and on many other factors. Among the hundreds of immigrants who took part in the French Resistance, met very different people. Among them were: the latter-day members of the French Communist Party M.Ya.. Gaft and I.I. Trojan (last - a former soldier in the Russian Army General P.N. Wrangel the Civil War in Spain on the Republican side), the son of the writer Leonid Andreyev - V.L. Andreev, the son of the king's minister and chairman of the Government of Southern Russia in 1920,. AV. Krivosheina - IA. Krivoshein, mother Maria (E.YU. Kuzmina-Karavayeva), TA. Volkonskaia nicknamed "Red Princess". After Germany attacked the USSR in the medium of emigrants living in France, was steadily drifting towards the Soviet patriotism. However, this trend was fascinated by no means all. Vera Obolensky not share the pro-Soviet sentiments of many of his comrades in the fight against the invaders.
Germanic security forces repeatedly attempted to infiltrate the resistance of its agents. Finally, he was arrested and recruited by a member of the underground organization "Notre Dame Tilda radio operator, through which carried us to London. Tilda has received from the Germans' task to establish contact with the OSM, which at that time temporarily lost communication channels with de Gaulle. In this situation, the proposal Tilda cooperation seemed to guide beckons DSM. But "Wiki" was opposed. Ultimately, her arguments prevailed, and the operation of the Germans, aimed at insight into the very core of OSM, was disrupted.
Since 1943. new direction in the work of the Resistance was to establish contacts with the citizens of the USSR - Red Army soldiers taken prisoner and Ostarbeiter "engaged in the construction of the Atlantic Wall and the soldiers' eastern parts of the" Wehrmacht. Through these engaged OSM Nicholas Obolensky ( "Niki"), attracted his wife to active work in the organization.
Vicky was arrested at one of the secret apartment on Dec. 17, 1943, Mr.. It was contained in several prisons. Attitude to it, compared with other prisoners involved with it in one case, it was quite correct. Deficiencies in the investigative authorities and the Gestapo prison guards allowed prisoners, contained in various cells, share information, build a common course of conduct for interrogations, to introduce result in misleading. It was possible because the same contact with associates at large, and thus prevent some of the arrests and disclosure of appearances. Nevertheless, the end of February 1944. Germans managed to arrest most of the leaders of OSM. The organization's work was largely paralyzed. Take part in hostilities during the Allied landings OSM failed: by 6 June 1944. it practically ceased to exist.
The greatest successes in uncovering a conspiratorial network OSM Group has a special purpose? "716" military counterintelligence, until February 1943. working in Kiev. Under the pressure of irrefutable evidence Obolenskaya moved to the latter method of protection - a complete abandonment to report any information. In this regard, she received the nickname "Princessin ich weiss nicht" ( "The princess is nothing-Do not know").
The investigation sought to appeal to Obolenskaya as representative of anti-Bolshevik emigration and to persuade her to cooperate, raised the question about "the need to struggle with Jewry". But all attempts to find common ground with the defendant at the ideological level, did not lead to the desired result. Obolensky said that Hitler was waging war not only against Bolshevism, but also aims to eventually eliminate Russia's statehood, which does not give her opportunity to collaborate with the Germans. In addition, she stated that being a Christian, does not share the idea of the superiority of the Aryan race.
Retreating from the borders of France, the Germans took away with them part of the prisoners. Obolensky was taken to Berlin, where he was kept in PlцTtzensee Prison in Berlin.
August 4, 1944, Mr.. was guillotined.
Marshal B. Montgomery special decree of May 6, 1946. expressed his admiration for merit Obolenskaya as "Volunteer of the United Nations". In the USSR Obolenskaya name was included in the list of compatriots, living during the Great Patriotic War abroad and actively fought against Nazi Germany ". Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 18 November 1965. She was awarded the Order of Patriotic War I degree.
Highest awards princess VA. Obolensky received from the French Government: Croix de Guerre with palm branch, the Resistance Medal and the Knight's Order of the Legion of Honor.
|Anna for Vera Obolensky Apollonovna
|Someone needs to fix all the mistakes in this translation to English. Hard to understand what the author is trying to convey.
|Natalia for Vera Obolensky Apollonovna
|It should me marked that this is the translation from Flam L. Vicky: the Countess Obolensky, Moscow, Russky put', 1996. (In Russian)
|Berengaria Sanchez for Vera Obolensky Apollonovna
|What a horrible translation. How can something so bad be published about someone who deserves much better. Shame, shame, shame.