Klyuev Nikolai( Poet)
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Biography Klyuev Nikolai
Klyuev Nikolai (1884 - 1937), poet.
Born on October 10 in one of the deaf villages of the Russian North (Olonetsk province) in a peasant family, closely related to the Old Believer tradition that greatly influenced the character and creativity of the poet. From his mother, Praskovya Dmitrievna inherited a love of folk art - the songs, spiritual poems, tales, legends. She also taught him to read. In 1893 - 95 attended parochial school, then in two-grade urban school, after which a year was in Petrozavodsk feldsher school. Gone sickness. Begins journey to Klyueva Old Believers monastery, monasteries.
In the early 1900's began to write poetry: in 1904 in St. Petersburg anthology New Poets "appeared his poem (" Do not rosy dreams come true ...", "It is widely boundless field ..." etc.), in 1905 - in the collections "Waves" and "Surf".
In 1905 - 07 actively participated in the revolutionary movement of peasants and in 1906 for six months in prison for it, after which it was installed for the secret police surveillance.
By 1907 began a correspondence with Klyueva A. Block, which had great significance for both (37 preserved letters Klyueva Blok). Block used these letters in their articles, considering them "a document of great importance - about modern Russia - People, of course" ( "The words of his letter seem to me the golden words"). With the assistance of a. Blok's poems N. Klyueva printed in the journals "Golden Fleece", "New Land", etc.. In 1912 came two poetry books Klyueva - "Pines ringing" (with a foreword Bryusov) and the Fraternal Song. Before the revolution came two collections - "Forest were" (1913) and "Worldly d: 'we' (1916). Not only a block and Bruce noticed this original, great poet, but Gumilev, Akhmatova, Gorodetsky, M., and others. In 1915 Klyuev acquainted with S. Yesenin, and around them are grouped poets novokrestyanskogo direction (S. Klychkov, P. Oreshin A. Shiryaevets, etc.).
October Revolution Kluev warmly welcomed by taking it as a response to age-old aspirations of the peasantry. In those years he worked hard and enthusiastically. In 1919 comes a collection of "Copper Whale", which included such revolutionary poems as "The Red Song" (1917), "From the basement, from the dark corners ..." deep in the people ".
Decisive role in the fate Klyueva played a critical article about him Trotsky (1922), which appeared in the central press. Stamp "kulak poet, accompanies him on a decade. Poet in dire need, he turns to the Union of poets, asking for help, wrote to Gorky: "... Poverty, wandering through other people's dinners destroys me as an artist". Continues to work, creating some very important works: "Lament of Sergei Yesenin" and the poem "Pogorelschina".
Since 1931 Kluev lives in Moscow, but the way in literature closed to him: everything he wrote was rejected by the editorial.
In 1934 he was arrested and exiled from Moscow for five years in the city Kolpashevo Narym edge. "I referred to the poem" Pogorelschina, nothing else for me there, "- he wrote from exile.
By mid-1934 Klyueva transferred to Tomsk. Painfully experiencing a forced separation from the literature, he wrote: "I do not feel sorry for me as a public figure, but the pity of his songs, bees, sweet, sunny and golden. Shibko they sting my heart "
. June 5, 1937 Klyuev was arrested in Tomsk "for counter-revolutionary insurgency" (Siberian NKVD fabricated a case of "save the Union of Russia", . allegedly was preparing to revolt against Soviet rule, . in which the role of one of the leaders attributed Klyuev),
. In October 1937 in Tomsk N. Klyuev was shot. He was posthumously rehabilitated.
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