TIKHON( Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia)
Comments for TIKHON
Tikhon (before the tonsure as a monk in 1891. - Vasily Ivanovich Belavin) (1865-1925) - Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. In 1907-1913 he. - Headed by one of the departments of the Black-monarchist organization "Union of Russian People". Elected patriarch of November 5, 1918, Mr.. 1 st All-Russia Local Council. In May 1922. was prosecuted for speaking out against the Bolsheviks and placed under house arrest. In May 1923. 2 nd All-Russia Local Council, compiled Renovators, defrocked patriarch, that did not recognize his supporters. In June 1923. forced to ask the Soviet government for clemency. He left a will in which he called the faithful to cooperate with the Soviets, as well as realized the futility of combat in the socio-political conditions.
Tikhon (in the world or Bellavin Belavin, Vasily Ivanovich) (1865, with. Klin Pskov Province. - 1925, Moscow) - Patriarch. Genus. family priest. After Toropetzkaya spiritual uch-я+п¦ entered the Pskov Theological Seminary, to-Rui graduated among the first, and was sent to the St. Petersburg Theological Academy. Here he received from his comrades playful nickname "patriarch". In 1888, received the degree of candidate of theology, became a teacher of the Pskov Theological Seminary. In 1891 he took monastic vows and was ordained a deacon, and then began his rapid advance to the Church hierarchy. In 1898 he was appointed vicar of the Warsaw diocese, was elevated to the rank of bishop of Lublin. Soon Tikhon was assigned to the U.S., where as bishop of the Aleutian spread Orthodoxy, opened schools and churches, established the St. Tikhon's Monastery in Pennsylvania, becoming in 1905 the Archbishop. Since 1907 he has been withdrawn to Russia, served in the Diocese of Yaroslavl.
A committed monarchist, Tikhon became chairman of the Yaroslavl branch of the Union of Russian People ". In 1913, because of contradictions with the governor was transferred to the Archbishop of Lithuania and the Vilna. In 1915, when Russian. troops left Vilna, Tikhon moved to Moscow. In 1916 he took part in the meeting of the monarchists, who fought against the progressive bloc, and Nicholas II granted Tikhon "for works for the glory of the Fatherland" for wearing a diamond cross on the hood.
After the February roar. 1917 Tikhon became head of Moscow. Diocese. At the Local Council of Eng. Orthodox Church in August. Tikhon was elected in 1917 and chairman of the Metropolitan Cathedral. It was decided to restore the patriarchate, and the three candidates elected by lot by the San Patriarch Tikhon was. By the victory of the Bolsheviks in October reacted very negatively, by comparing them to Sots. construction with the construction of the Tower of Babel: "Our builders want to create a name for himself, his reforms and decrees of benefiting not only the poor Russian people, but the whole world and even nations, have far more cultural. And this arrogant venture to suffer the same fate as the designs of the Babylonians ". Tikhon condemned the decree on the separation of church and state-wah and the conclusion of the Brest Peace.
In January 1919 Tikhon gave Owls. power anathema.
In August 1921 the church was founded by the All-Russia Committee for Famine Relief, which began raising funds, but he was dismissed at the request of the authorities. In December 1921 the Soviet government ordered the church to give value to the needs of hungry and Tikhon allowed to sacrifice precious things that do not have the liturgical use. VI. Lenin, to use the fight against hunger for anti-religious struggle, such a decision was not satisfied. In February 1922 the Central Executive Committee decided to withdraw from the temples of the precious utensils force. Tikhon declared such action sacrilege. Over those who resisted the authorities in the seizure of property, was organized process on a rum-Tikhon acted as a witness. After the process Tikhon was under arrest. In June 1923 Tikhon wrote a statement to the Supreme Court of the RSFSR, which regretted the "anti-Soviet acts" and declared: "I am now an enemy of Soviet power. I definitely and strongly dissociating themselves from both overseas and on domestic counter-monarchist White Guard ", after he was released.
In December 1924, unknown broke into his cell and shot at the Donskoy Monastery in Tikhon, to the closed-cerned with his body attendant YA.S. Polozov, the patriarch who saved his life. Before his death, Tikhon made a will, calling on believers to cooperate with the Owls, the power, but a number of experts expressed his fake. In 1988, Tikhon was canonized Eng. Orthodox Church.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Tikhon (Belavin, on dp. According. Bellavin Vasily Ivanovich) (19 January. 1865 Toropetzkaya y. Pskov Province ..- April 7. 1925, Moscow). Genus. family sat. Priest. At the end of the parish school and the Pskov Seminary (1883) as one of the best students were sent to St. Petersburg. Theological Academy, to-Rui graduated in 1888. [In the seminary he jokingly called "the bishop" and the Academy "patriarch" ( "Sovrem. Annals, 1925, t. 24, with. 251).] Taught in the Pskov Seminary. In 1891 he received the tonsure and became a priest Tikhon. In 1898 the bishop of Lublin, vicar of the diocese of Chelm. Since December. 1898 Bishop of the Aleutians in the U.S. (San Francisco, in 1905, in New York). Had a reputation as a man of great intelligence and wisdom of a very simple and affable in the treatment of all. In 1905, elevated to the rank of archbishop in 1907 was appointed archbishop of Yaroslavl. Was before. Yaroslavl Branch of the Union of Russian People "in its activities in conflict with the Governor, to-ing made the transfer Tikhon. Since December. 1914 Archbishop Lithuanian. During the 1-st world. War, in the 2 nd floor. 1915 rus. troops left Vilna, and Tikhon moved to Moscow. In 1916 the meeting of the monarchist party, to prescribe measures against the Progressive Bloc.
After the February. Revolution of 1917 and the reorganization of the chief prosecutor ACCESSED. pr-va VN. Lvov SW. Synod of the old ( "Rasputin") ended Tikhon lost membership in it. In May, the election Petrograd. Metropolitan Tikhon was among DOS. candidates. June 19th congress of the laity and clergy Mosk. Diocese elected Archbishop of Moscow and Kolomna. Being prepared with dovoen. time SW. Cathedral Pravosl. Ros. Church was at the final stage of preparations Tikhon (Cathedrals in Russia not convened since 1682). August 13. elevated to the rank of metropolitan. Local Council has opened in Moscow on August 15. At the first meeting of the Council on August 18. Tikhon was elected before. Cathedral (Cathedral led up to his election to the patriarchs). October 28. Cathedral restored patriarchate in Eng. Orthodox. Church, October 31. elected candidates: Archbishop Antony, Archbishop Arseny, Metropolitan Tikhon, Nov 5. ieromonah Alexis (elder Zosima Desert) chosen by lot from the three notes that, in a swarm-bore the name Tikhon, 21 Nov.. built on the patriarchal throne in the Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin. In his speech, Tikhon appealed to flock to standing for their faith and to protect the church, emphasized that the latter should be apolitical and to oppose the impending persecution of religion "by the sword the faith", not weapons.
. In his Christmas message to Tikhon said: "The evil of our time that the new state of being built without God, that people rely only on his strength, glued to the ground, bread and money and the freedom of wine upilis
. Church condemns such construction "(Journal of Russian. studench. KHrist. Traffic 1975. ? 115, with. 76). He played against the decree of the SNK separation of church and state-wah and the conclusion of the Brest Peace. In a message on January 18. 1918 wrote: "Wake up, fools, stop the bloody feud. ... Erected in the most cruel persecution of the holy Church of Christ: blessed sacrament, . sanctifies the birth of the light man or bless the matrimonial unions of the Christian family, . openly declared redundant, . holy temples are or destroyed by the deadly shooting of guns (holy cathedrals of Moscow Kremlin), . or robbery and blasphemous insult (Chapel of the Savior in Petrograd), . Miracle faithful people of the holy abode (as Alexander Nevsky Monastery and Pochaevskaya) captures godless rulers of this darkness and declared a sort of supposedly public property; School, . contained in the means of the Church and the Orthodox Church are preparing pastors and teachers of faith, . declared surplus and turned into schools or disbelief or just a breeding ground for immoral "(ibid., . 1968, . ? 89-90, . with,
. 15-16). In the village-laniii on January 19. Tikhon, referring to the Owls. authorities, wrote: "With the power given to us from God." anafemstvuem you ", called" believers and faithful children of the church: to protect become insulted and oppressed, now the holy mother of our ... and if need be, and suffer for the cause of Christ call you "(Acts of the Council Ros. Pravosl. Church. 1917-1918., KN. 6,. 1, P. 1918 C. 4-5).
In May 1918, Tikhon came to Petrograd (authorities grant him a seat in the mail car, and the railroad provided Dep. car). Held service in the Kazan and St. Isaac's Cathedral, in the monastery, visited, despite the threat of seafarers, Kronstadt, where he was greeted by thousands of believers. Served requiem at the grave of John of Kronstadt. At the meeting, the Council served a memorial service for the royal family. In 1918, fearing for the lives of Tikhon, close to it people are willing to escape from Russia, but Tikhon said: "The Flight of the Patriarch would be too into the hands of the enemies of the church, they would have used it in their species. Let them do anything ": from December. 1918 Tikhon lived under house arrest in his courtyard on the ground floor to the 3-cerned were the Red Army (see: Archpriest Christmas, St. Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Sofia, 1951,. 19, 21).
In his message of People's Commissars on the 1 st anniversary of the Soviet. power Tikhon wrote on October 25. 1918: "... seizing power and encouraging people to trust you, which promises to give you and how he fulfilled these promises?" Truly, you give him a stone instead of bread and a snake instead of a fish. The people, worn out by a bloody war, you promised to give peace without annexations and indemnities ... Instead of "annexations and indemnities" our great motherland won, depreciated, dismembered and in the payment of tribute imposed on it you did export to Germany is not your accumulated gold. Fatherland you replaced soulless internationalism, though they know perfectly well that when it comes to defending the fatherland, the proletarians of all countries are the faithful of his sons, but not traitors ... You have divided the whole nation into warring with each other mills and plunged it into the unprecedented severity of fratricide. But not enough for you that you have stained the hands of the Russian people to the brotherly blood: the cover of different names - indemnities, requisition and nationalization, you push it to the most open and shameless robbery. With impunity in the murder and robbery is granted to you the freedom ... We know that our cause in rebuking you only anger and resentment ... Celebrate the anniversary of your stay in power for the release of prisoners, . stop the bloodshed, . violence, . ruin, . saving faith, please do not destroy, . but to the ordering of law and order, . Give people a welcome and deserved rest from their internecine warfare "(J. .- ', . 1968, . ? 89-90, . With,
The message from the patriarch, Sep 25. (Oct. 8.) 1919 stated: "... we, the ministers and heralds of Christ's truth, came under suspicion in carriers sovr. latent power in the counter-tion, aimed ostensibly to overthrow the Soviet. system. But we strongly affirm that such suspicions are not justified ... Church is not bound to any particular form of government, as such, has only considers. ist. meaning ... No alien intervention, and indeed no one will save Russia from disorganization and ruin, yet the people are not cleansed in the font of repentance from years of their sores "(ibid., 1975, 115, C. 74).
Patriarch refused to bless the Red and White Army, because the church has no place fratricide, whatever the reasons it was not due. Proclaimed the failure of the church from politics, her departure from the CET. War (cm-Sovrem. notes ", t. 24, with. 251). Gave him leave to sacrifice the needs of hungry valuable TSerk. subjects.
In his message of 15 (28) Feb.. 1922 stated: "In August 1921 the church was founded by the All-Russia Committee for Famine Relief, and began raising money, but such a church organization was recognized by the Soviet government over -. However, in December 1921 the Government invited us to collect money for famine relief, we were allowed to sacrifice the needs of the hungry jewelry, . church ornaments and objects, . non-liturgical use, . what and notified the Orthodox population 6 (19) February special appeal, . to-Roe was allowed pr-tion for publication and dissemination of population 13 (26) Feb.,
. Central Executive Committee decided to withdraw from the temples of all the precious TSerk. things in t.ch. and the sacred vessels and other liturgical TSerk. items. From the perspective of the church, such an act is an act of blasphemy "(Journal of Russian. studench. KHrist. Traffic ...", 1970,? 98, with. 63). April 26. 1922 the trial began. trial of persons to-rye resisted removal TSerk. values, Tikhon was involved as a Chapter. witness. The trial ended on May 8 and May 9 patriarch was again placed under house arrest. May 12 to it were 3 priests and said: If the patriarch did not hand over power to one of the at-large bishops and not voluntarily retire to rest, all convicted for resisting the seizure TSerk. values be shot. Patriarch on July 3 temporarily handed over control Agafangel Church, the Metropolitan, but he was not allowed to Moscow.
June 16, 1923 Tikhon was released from custody, appeared in print a statement to-rum he regretted "antises. Gestures. In a message dated 1 July Tikhon wrote: "... Aware of his wronged Owls. power, expressed in a number of our passive or active antises. actions ... ie. in resisting the seizure Ordinance TSerk. values in favor of starving, anafemstvovanii Owls. power, opposition to the Brest peace, we repent and mourn the victims who have received a number of antises. activities, the Church is apolitical and does not want to be "neither white nor red" church "(Journal .-", "115, C. 76). In March 1924 the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee decided to discontinue the criminal case Belavin VI. - Patriarch Tikhon December 9, 1924, unknown broke into his cell in the Donskoy Monastery, attendant YA.S. Polozov screened Tikhon was shot and killed who had attempted fled. In his will, recognized by some specialists false (cm. ibid,. 58), Tikhon urged believers to cooperate with the Owls. power, appointed a successor to Metropolitan Kirill, Agathangel and Peter. In 1988, Tikhon was Ruz. Orthodox. Church canonized.
Used materials article ME. Golostenova in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993.
Anathema Patriarch Tikhon revolutionaries
January 19, 1918, Mr.. Patriarch Tikhon issued a message condemning the Bolsheviks and the call to resist them:
'Wake up, fools, stop your massacres. After all, what is happening, you not only cruel thing is - it is truly satanic, for which you are subject to fire geenskomu in the life of the future - beyond the grave and curse their offspring in this life - the earth.
. Authorities, dannoyu us from God, do not allow you to proceed to the mysteries of Christ, anafematstvuem you, unless you wear the names of Christian and even though the birth of her belong to the Orthodox Church.
. ... Conjure and all of you, faithful children of the Orthodox Church of Christ, not to engage with those monsters of the human race in any communication ..
. Inviting all of you, believers and faithful children of the Church: to become defense insulted and oppressed, now the Holy Mother of our ... And if need be, and suffer for the cause of Christ, inviting you, beloved children of the Church, are inviting you to those suffering along with me ...
. And you, . brothers Archpastors and pastors, . not delay a single hour in your spiritual activity, . with an ardent zeal Call Chad to protect your rights now trodden under the Orthodox Church, . instantly built up spiritual union, . Call no distress, . and good will of the ranks to become spiritual champions, . which oppose the external force because of its holy inspiration, . and we firmly trust, . that the enemies of the Church will be scattered and shamed by the power of the Cross of Christ, . For immutable promise of the Divine Crusader himself: "Sozizhdu my church, . and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it "...',
This message was approved by the Local Council.