ABU L-HASAN( Artist)
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Biography ABU L-HASAN
Abu al-Hasan (1589-1630). The life and creative life of the master Abu al-Hassan is linked with the Muslim dynasty of Babur, called in Europe, the Great Moguls who ruled India for 300 years. Creation of the descendants of the legendary Timur strong centralized state had a beneficial effect on the development of culture, . and toleration rulers facilitate penetration of a variety of philosophical and artistic influences from all over the East and from Europe,
. Since the second half of XVI century prints and paintings by Italian, Spanish, Dutch and German artists are widespread in the Mogol yard, and local craftsmen willing to copy them. One of the prints - the image of John the Baptist Durer about 1600 neatly recreated in miniature the very young Abu al-Hasan.
. At the end of the XVI century the simple and subtle technique of painting on paper, is especially popular and replaces other forms of art
. Colorful miniature, pasted on cardboard, collected in large albums "murakka" and the collection, scholars and courtiers libraries. The ruler Akbar (1556-1605) gathered a massive collection of albums and books and even tried to draw, to understand painting as a means of active learning and pleasure. On the orders of Akbar from Sanskrit into Persian were translated classic works of ancient Indian Ramayana and Mahabharata. Illustrations of the latter were carried out just in 1589 - a year of birth Abu al-Hasan.
. Cosmopolitanism and respect any national traditions, . generated by the breadth of thinking of the Moghul rulers, . with Akbar lead to even try to create a new "synthetic" philosophical religion "Din-i-Force" (Divine Faith), . combining exercise with the Indian Muslim,
. In it, not without the influence of European Renaissance, the importance attached to knowledge, reason. "Divine Faith" is not widespread among the people, but was popular among intellectuals and artists.
. In the workshops at the court of Akbar worked 145 miniature of various nationalities from Iran, India and Central Asia, among which, in full accord with the new religious doctrine, prevailed a spirit of understanding and creative cooperation
. Among them, not least the father of Abu al-Hasan - Aka-Riza Jahangiri, even in his youth invited to the Mughal court of Herat. Together with a visiting Persian Aka-Riza brought Iranian influence in the Indian miniatures, but his son, born in India, is not done. Development of talent Abu al-Hassan was so rapid, that is R17-18 years, he was considered quite a mature master, and, in the opinion of contemporaries, succeeded his father. He is looking for a miniature fusion based on merging the traditions of local schools with the best Safavi (Iraqi) and the Central Asian traditions.
. Succeeded Akbar Jahangir (1605-1627) in the superlative degree of free-thinking father and inherited his love art, and in the face of Abu al-Hassan has gained unique artistic chronicler
. Until we reached a bit of original works of Abu al-Hasan, but few of these testimonies are not mediocre talent distinguishes the confident elegance of design, the richness and subtle harmony palettes. He easily allowed the often more difficult spatial tasks, boldly reviving traditional "carpet" track individual European techniques of chiaroscuro and perspective. The subjects of his paintings are very diverse - from historical legends to domestic scenes, but most often it is the episodes of court life and portraits. With the arrival of Abu al-Hasan in the semi-legendary biography genre of "name" prevailed live documentary details and facts-, does not prevent the poetic image. Often one skillfully executed leaf Abu al-Hasan, contains more than take the material and spiritual life of the era than lengthy descriptions of multiple registries.
. This is especially the most famous of his masterpieces - "The Coronation of Jahangir, representing a true encyclopedia of former life - as it cut across all social multilayered society from the dignitaries to the poor
. Equally clear is given "hierarchy" of items - from little things of life to the surrounding architecture ceremony. And in the architectural decoration - demonstrate the integration of all the diverse influences, from which grew the peculiarity of the new school of Mughal miniatures and Abu al-Hasna as its major representative. The portal of the palace of the Indian image of European soaring angels side by side with Chinese dragons and a purely Iranian episodes from the life of the Eastern poets sung Majnun.
. No accident that in the stage of "Coronation" the image of foreign visitors, especially one of those who diligently Agrinskaya start to teach the rulers of European art - the Florentine monk Francesco Korea
. However, enlightened artists and thinkers baburidskogo "Renaissance" supported the European context, not only through the Catholic missions - in Delhi and Agra highly prized engraving Geroga Nenets and other German Protestants. In a surprisingly ie they portal, . symbolically as a connecting Europe, Asia, . as well as in the whole atmosphere of celebration, . uniting all classes and races, . artist embodied his ideal of good governance - one of the hopes of the Italian Renaissance, . for centuries involved in its European counterparts.,
. Jahangir said in his memoirs that the image of "Coronation" Abu al-Hassan was awarded the title "Nadir az-Zaman" (Miracle of the time) and since then (1606) signed by that name
. How great was the glory of the wizard, indicate repeated forgery of his signature by other artists in order to raise the price of their works. From the provisions poluremeslennika-poluslugi Abu al-Hasan rose to the diplomatic mission - when Jahangir, the artists included in the delegations sent to foreign courts with the crucial task - to portray the foreign rulers.
. Even memorized ritual palace receptions - darbar gave Abu al-Hasan to search in more little exploration of the portrait - in the scenes involving sometimes up to several dozens of historical figures
. Updating the genre in the years 1610-1615 made to the portraits of the new variety - an impersonal image of three-quarters followed by a more expressive profile, conventional posture - the natural movement of the individual. From impartiality true Renaissance Abu al-Hasan and his gifted brothers try to follow the truth of characters, regardless of social status represented. Because, probably, who wanted to be fair in all his portraits of the emperor gave hands Nadir az-Zaman's court in token of his highest favor.
. However, contrary to the expectations of many, the last years of dreamed of universal peace Jahangir were marred by strife and anarchy
. His successor on the throne of Shah Jahan's not for nothing that shows the "born at the court of loyal Nadir al-Zamanov" against the background of the battle - the laurels of the great warrior seduced him more fame Good ruler.
. Abu al-Hasan died two years later on the accession of Shah Jafar Khan, . and after him other painters, . answering queries of the new reign, . increasingly replacing the truth and expressiveness in the miniatures decorative and beautiful dressing - until the accession of the new Shah Aurangzeb,
. This Muslim fanatic zeal eliminate all free-runners of their predecessors, generally closes the school of arts - the famous court workshops, poetry and nourished the truth creatures Abu al-Hasan.