AKSNIS Adam( Artist)
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Biography AKSNIS Adam
Adam Alksnis (1864-1897) died very young, and his talent, apparently, did not manage to reveal in full force. Nevertheless, they made were enough to take Alksnis one of the founders of the Latvian national school of painting and the forerunner of the democratic realist art in Latvia beginning of XX century. Artistic Heritage Alksnis has about 800 paintings, drawings, sketches, sketches and book illustrations. The number is huge in itself admirable. If, moreover, take into account that a large proportion of time was occupied by Alksnis social activities, then his contribution to Latvian culture of the late XIX century was even more significant. Meanwhile, out of 800 of his works the vast majority is in the nature of academic or educational Studies, or accessory, intended for home use, small, often tiny, sketches. Of finished oil Alksnis created very little, but its role in the artistic culture of his time was quite significant.
. Alksnis died early and, . maybe, . partly so, and remained in the memory of the younger contemporaries and succeeding generations to the very high place of honor and the Forerunner, . ordained parish whole group of painters and graphic artists, . which began with the history of Latvian professional art,
. Let the success of these and more bright young artists have been more significant, they still should not overshadow the modest figure Alksnis. He walked away from the academic system and cleared the path of a new, first started to realize a national school of painting. Can not say that until Alksnis of Latvia did not go professional artists - for example, are older painters to. Gong and Yoo. Fedder used in Russian art circles and known and respected. But, . leaving Latvia, . these artists have settled in the capital and in his work with the homeland were virtually unrelated, . Although Gong once wrote a few sentimental and accusatory watercolors such as "Latvian laborer for dinner", . Fedder and people came in the summer in Sigulda and on the beach,
. Alksnis almost first appealed to national topics, and returned upon completion of training in the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts in homes. However, he began to study drawing back in Riga, where he graduated from the School of the Society of German craftsmen.
In St. Petersburg, Alksnis was a fraternity of Latvian students studying in the Academy and College Stieglitz. This fraternity uniting progressive-minded students and was known as "Rukis" ( "Worker"). Generation Alksnis often just called generation "Rukisa". Particularly noteworthy in that time, the emergence of so-called mladolatyshskoy educational ideology. In any country there comes a time when the most sensitive to the social needs of the group of educated young people from the arts and business community in favor of transformative ideas.
Alksnis was not just a member of Rukisa ". He was one of its founders and the chief ideologist. The man widely-educated, not alien to all the pressing public interest, he was concerned about the ambitious program of spiritual education of the people and enhance the cultural base of society. His friend, artist J. Rosenthal wrote: "Much of what our artists represent their own discovery, should be attributed to the influence and initiative Alksnis". Ideologist, herald of good ideas and influence in his circle leader, Alksnis is associated with INKramskoy. Their fate, the historical role and level of talent remarkably similar. Both artists have left very little finished thematic tracks both gave strength, time and energy of the soul to public service.
During the life Alksnis, new Latvian artists. In 1896 in Riga in the Latvian ethnographic exhibition was an exhibition of Latvian art in which I participated. Rosenthal N. Walter, B. Purve. Rosenthal Alksnis younger than two years and the most interesting artist generation Rukisa, made in the art as if something that has not had time to myself Alksnis.
However, the origins of the national tradition came from Alksnis. In its place is a great heritage of historical theme: drawings and sketches mostly devoted to episodes of the heroic struggle of Latvian peasants against the German crusaders, conquerors. In the small pencil drawings Alksnis seen fluency complex laws of the battle songs - in the image of horse and foot shapes in the dynamic angles, in the transfer of dramatic passion of bloody clashes. And here, looking at dozens of sketches of ancient warriors to unrealized historical pictures, can not help recalling Kramskogo - with its numerous drawings of Roman soldiers to the unwritten monumental painting.
. In St. Petersburg, Alksnis studied in the studio of a famous battle-painting teacher-battle-Professor BP Villevalde
. The academic achievements of young Latvians were the years of study marked by two small and two large silver medals. From the combination of these awards in 1892, when Alksnis decided to leave the Academy without the participation of the latter test-competition (as Kramskoy), the board awarded him the title of professors of the artist of the third degree.
. In addition to battles Alksnis held peasant genre, the founder of Latvian art in which he was
. The artist knew their character - strong and moderate toilers of the sea and land. He was born on a farm in a prosperous farming family. Aromas fields and the heavy tread of villagers Alksnis tried to embody in graphic sketches and small oil sketches, painting the eternal rhythm of peasant life - in the series "Plowman", "The Sower", "Cleaning of Potatoes. In each series of the artist, by varying pose, scale and composition (eg, "Plowman", "plowing", "Vacation Plowman", "Plowman and a girl", etc.), creating a collective image of the peasant. Thus Alksnis worked towards establishing a pattern-type, filling their modest miniature epic significance.
Several options have composition "In Forest. In sketch. belonging Tukums museum, depicts a farmer with an ax on his shoulder, with a pipe in his mouth and a "European" cap with a visor. Behind his small, snow-covered hut, around the deserted snowy field. Extremely laconic composition with a minimum of parts and almost monochrome brownish-gray gamma convey the mood of timeless, almost symbolic of what is happening. The same axes in the hands of the ancient Latvian soldiers Alksnis, defending against the Germans, perhaps the farmer with an ax was a favorite hero of the artist and presented him the master of life. But he Alksnis to this life not lived. Rosen-Tal wrote: "Bright and light impressed Alksnis as a person and as an artist at all the first generation of our artists."