JOST Amman( Artist)
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Biography JOST Amman
Jost Amman (1539-1591). The specificity of the Swiss art is always determined by the proximity of large countries - Germany, France and Italy. In different periods of history, these countries have different influences on the art of Switzerland, drawn into the orbit of its cultural life of various artists. Thus, in the Renaissance a great influence on the Swiss art was Germany, with its ideas of the Reformation, not only in religion but in all spheres of human activity. In Switzerland there is a chapter of the Reformation U. Zwingli, and the country is increasingly inclined to the German version of Renaissance culture. There is interpenetration of cultures. In Basel, who was then the largest art center, run by German artist Albrecht Dц+rer, Baldung Green, Holbein the Elder. But such well-known Swiss charts, as Urs Graf or post Amman, went to the German cities. For both, in particular, became a haven Nuremberg.
For art characteristic of the Reformation, that it was an important element of social, feudal and religious strife. Thought of Luther, Munzer and other reformers pierced the whole society, and capturing many of the leading artists. Artistic activity becomes an expression of socio-political and philosophical ideas, arms Reformation.
In the first half of XVI century European art is experiencing a period of extraordinary prosperity. Artists open up many new subjects. The relationship between man and nature, social struggle, a satire on the clergy and princes - all this becomes the subject of art, which goes to the forefront of public life.
At this time, the schedule gets a special role. As Reformed literature was distributed in the form of books, pamphlets and leaflets, it is often supplied with graphic illustrations, which were often the main carriers of the content (literacy was not common). First, that is, in the second half of XV century, engraving was in the hands of unknown artists, but soon turned to her and most major artists. Although already in the 30 years of the XVI century art in Germany and close to her country into a state of decline, the tradition continues to animate graphic art throughout the century.
During this period engraving has finally displaces book thumbnail. Basel continues to be the center of Graphic Arts. Here create their woodcuts, Urs Graf and H. Asper, printed etchings Tobias Shtimmer and Jost Amman. These artists are trying to continue the humanistic tradition of their older contemporaries, but by mid-century, their art is caught in the grip pattern of thinking. The schedule generally consists style distinctive decorative features of Art. Reflection of these processes can be found in the schedule of Amman.
As a student of stained, he devoted himself mainly to the graphic arts. The first half of his life Amman held in Switzerland, where he worked mainly in Basel and Zurich. From 1561 until his death, he lived and worked in Nuremberg, a city of glorious artistic tradition, Rhodizite Albrecht Durer. Here they were created and graphic portraits (such, . Kings of France), . and separate sheets, . depict hunting and battle scenes, . famous illustrations to the books "The Art of Riding" (1566), . "The Book of Costume" (1567), . Book estates and artisans "(1568), . "The book is about a game of cards" (1588), . The Book of coats of arms "(1589),
. All these works mainly made in the technique of woodcuts. It Amman, to accelerate the creative process, no longer do the preparatory drawings for the woodcuts and painted directly on the board. This affects the quality of prints, which are simplified and schematized. In general, the "Books" in Amman are primarily historical, domestic, and only then artistic value. With accuracy ethnographer engraver depicts the customs and clothing of his time, professions and trades. Using the most uncomplicated graphic techniques, it does not set a goal of artistic understanding of the image, but only a statement of certain facts. So many of his prints are valuable only as an indication of the livelihood and living era ( "Painter" from the Book of estates and artisans).
The example of creativity in Amman can be seen that the schedule is gradually losing independence. Increasingly, it is used in decorative art for the manufacture of coinage designs or carvings, and in the book - for the ornamental design. Now inheritance graphics - its applied use. And the result is loss of skills and skill. Premaxillary engraving comes in full decay. The regularity of this phenomenon is evident. In its artistic building this type of graphic techniques associated with the book of the Reformation - and the simplicity of techniques and possibilities of replication. With the change of historical period there is a need in some technology and replaced the cutter comes etching, full of expressive possibilities that artists throughout the least understood only in the XVII century.