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Cabanel, Alexander

( Artist)

Comments for Cabanel, Alexander
Biography Cabanel, Alexander
Alexandre Cabanel (1823-1889). Nothing does not accurately reflect "the psychology of the era, as the mass culture. After half a century, her idols are forgotten, but even in a hundred years, the historian finds in their works precious material for the reconstruction of mentalities and tastes of time. In the XIX century incarnation of the restructuring of the "high art" became a salon painting, and one of the most striking manifestations of it in France - creativity Alexandre Cabanel.

. Cabanel was perhaps the most popular and famous artists of the Second Empire (1852-1870)
. Stylish portrait, favorite painter of Napoleon III and other European rulers, he has become known as a symbol of outdated academic tradition, skilfully adapted to the requirements of time. Cabanel was the winner of many awards, a member of the French Academy,

Professor of the School of Fine Arts, member of the jury of the official Salon exhibitions. By caustic observer of contemporary Cabanel, ' "silky skin and delicate hands of his portraits were a constant source of admiration for the ladies and stimulation for artists."

. The cause of loud glory Cabanel, a rather poor draftsman and colorist banal, to be found in the social reality that gave rise to this kind of creativity
. Elect the type of paintings by the artist could not be more in line with the style of life and claims "high society" of the Second Empire. And the very nature of painting with its colorful smooth surface, a virtuoso performance parts and "sweet" flavor and impressed the whole mass of spectators - regular visitors to exhibitions at the Salon. Talking about Cabanel forces, however, not only his lifetime popularity, but also the vitality of the artistic phenomenon, which he so fully expressed. An instructive example of Cabanel helps uncover the intriguing mystery of salon art.

Biography of the artist is going well and happy. Born in 1823 in the college town of Montpellier in southern France, Cabanel was raised in an academic environment committed to the traditions. Transported in childhood in Paris, he enrolled in 1840 in the School of Fine Arts in studio Francois Picot. In 1845 he successfully completed the course and was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome for the painting "Christ before the judges". Together with his friend, art collector and connoisseur of antiquity A. Bruhat, Cabanel settled in Rome, where the final shape his style.

. Cabanel brought from Rome painting "The Death of Moses" was shown at the Salon in 1852 and brought its author the first award exhibition in an endless chain of medals and rewards
. Speech Cabanel at the Paris Salon was like a prologue hallmark of artistic life in the Second Empire. Later the artist was to deliver to the court of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, with its glitter and glamor, . the pursuit of pleasure and indifference to the means of achieving them picturesque "seasoning" in the form of illustrations or spicy dramatic episodes of history and literature,
. Numerous more or less naked women, . intended to portray in his works Shulamith, . Ruth, . Cleopatra, . Francesca da Rimini or Desdemona, . frustrated by the monotony of the "burning eyes", . advanced, . circled eye shadows, . mincing gestures and unnaturally pink tone mannered curved curvy body.,

. Properties art Cabanel impressed taste of high customer
. In 1855, among the first medal at the World Exhibition in 1855 for his film "Triumph of St. Louis, Cabanel was awarded the Legion of Honor, in 1864 he was made an officer, and in 1878 - a Commander of the Order. In 1863 he was elected a member of the Academy to the place which he occupied until Jean-L.David, JJ. Lebarbe and Horace Vernet. Also in 1863, which has gone down in the history of French art by the famous "Salon of the excluded", which demonstrated "Breakfast on the Grass" E. Man, Cabanel official position as "the first painter of the Empire" was further strengthened. Napoleon III purchased for himself two paintings Kabani la - "Rape of the Nymphs" (1860, Lille, Museum of Fine Arts) and "nail" the official Salon "Birth of Venus" (1863, Paris, Louvre). Thus vyalomu and anemic art Cabanel, melted, in the words of the critic, "in the fragrance of violets and roses, was given the status of the standard, the dominant model of taste and the highest achievements of modern painting.

. Mythological scenes Cabanel, full of languor mannered, deliberate grace and erotic ambiguity, to recreate the aesthetic ideal of the era, its attraction to the "beautiful life"
. Characters ancient stories remind Cabanel most perverse and sensual nymphs Klodiona. The works of this French sculptor of the late XVIII century, were widely known in the second half of the XIX century by the rise of a large number of copies of his works, and free interpretations of contemporary artists on the theme Klodiona (A.E.Kare-Belleuse, . JB Klezanzhe).,

. Creativity Cabanel was not only and not so much individual and the local artistic phenomenon, as the embodiment of a principle
. It belonged to a type very common in the XIX century art, calculated on the average, mass taste, uses to gain popularity tested techniques. Numerous idols of the century, the apostles salon classicism A. Cabanel, W. Bouguereau, J. Enner, P. Baudry owned all historical styles, and have not developed their own. No wonder contemporary, wrote about one of these legislators artistic fashion: "Usually everybody takes his pictures for copies of works by various artists ... Nevertheless, the artist thrives, and most of his imitative faculty, most of which lack any distinctive as it contributes to its success ". Quality guaranteeing success pleasant mediocrity fully distinguishes the work of Alexandre Cabanel.

With the establishment of the republic Cabanel not lost its glory. He was literally swamped with orders, manufacturing stereotypically elegant female portraits (Portrait of Katharina Wulff, 1876, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art) and images "fatal beauty" of the past ( "Phaedrus", Museum of Montpellier). At least he has successfully acted as a teacher, showing well-known liberal in respect of their pupils, among whom were Zh.Basten-Lepage, B.Kon-stan, E. Moreau, F. Cormon, A. Zherveks.

. Throughout their lives the privileged and caressed by light artist Cabanel remained faithful learned techniques
. His works are as it were out of time. Their smooth emalevidnaya painting, . cleverly composed composition (a compilation of the most popular models of world art), . careful study of details, . melodramatic theatrical gesture, . "monotonous beautiful" people do not imply any intrinsic evolution.,

. However, despite the conservatism of his own artistic method, "not even able to translate banality of his designs" (F. Basile), Cabanel sometimes showed a breadth of opinions
. Thus, already in 1881, he was, for many years, sharply negative attitude to E. Manet and the Impressionists, in defense presented at the exhibition "Portrait Pertyuize" of E. Manet. "Lord, among us not be found, perhaps four, who could write his head like this," - these words are respected and recognized master serve as unwitting recognition decisive victory of the new trends in French art.


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