Carreno de Miranda Juan( Artist)
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Biography Carreno de Miranda Juan
Juan Carreno de Miranda (1614-1685)
The second half of XVII century Spanish art - this time of transition from the highest achievements of this school of painting to a new stage of development. After his death in 1660, Velazquez, Zurbaran - in 1664 (the third largest master, Ribera, passed away before that, eight years before Velazquez) has changed the face of Spanish painting. Its fecundity, effects, virtuosity is extremely high, but this is not true of the depth of content.
. Reign of Charles II (1665-1700), the last monarch of the Habsburg dynasty, marked by the decline of the ECONOMY and public life
. In a state of depression and the impasse it has to be a century - until the French Revolution of 1789 did not shake Spain, together with other European countries, . until not appear incredibly bold and rebellious art of Goya.,
. Save and cultivate high artistic traditions in the period of stagnation - a special and difficult task
. Juan Carreno de Miranda was one of the few artists who were on it can. He went away from the main centers of Spanish art, in Valladolid. Yet the young master could not get caught up in the carotid, . long-term life of a provincial town, . where he probably would have had a lifetime to write altarpiece by strict canons of the Counter-Reformation, . under the watchful eye of an equally vigilant, . as it is limited to the church authorities.,
. The artist moved to Madrid, and here, overlooked by Velц¦zquez, was commissioned to painting the so-called Mirror Salon in Madrid's royal palace
. Carreno takes some court positions, but he can not become "an artist of the King". At court no longer has a tradition of intelligent patronage characteristic of some of the old rulers of Spain. Growing pressure on the art of dry and dull formality of religiosity. Evaluate the results of the work of artists working in such difficult conditions, accounting for the special standards. Is amazing that such a master as Carreno, managed to keep so long many of the best quality of the Spanish school of painting, when its "golden age" was already behind. The historical situation and public sentiment were highly unfavorable to live art. Weakness, numbness took possession of a huge world power, with its enormous resources and wealth, its possessions, spread out in different parts of the world - especially in America. The top of the society divides his time between the fast life and the hypocrisy of church and state implementation of the ceremonies, and people remain silent. Every public building is crowned by a handful of worthless people surrounding the painful king-epileptic - the last of the once glorious, but completely degenerated family.
. It is hard to imagine that such a reality and these characters could inspire artists
. But the art is able to live in such conditions for some time before the accumulated reserves. Kunstsammlung Spain reveals each artist or with the incomparable riches. Carreno could freely explore paintings by Velazquez, who at that time almost at full strength decorated rooms, lobbies and staircases of the palace in Madrid, and suburban residences of King. Here - an incomparable collection of paintings by the Venetian painters, headed by Titian and Veronese and Flemish painters, headed by Rubens and Van Dyck.
. And the strength and weakness of the last generation of Spanish painters of the XVII century is that their art was fed by the legacy of the past, but found little support and inspiration in the historical and social life
. Beating the living of life dies in Spain, it is stored only in the paintings of earlier times - in Rubens and Titian images, centered in the deep portraits of Velasquez, the ecstatic emotions works. El Greco, in proud heroes of Van Dyck.
Paintings of Juan Carreno de Miranda characterize him as a devoted disciple and follower of the great masters of the past. And at the same time, he was witness to the inexorable spiritual emptiness of his contemporaries.
Master left quite a lot of religious paintings. They are rich coloristic, finely modeled, for example, "CB. Sebastian from the Prado Museum in Madrid (1656). Carreno likes to apply in such cases, the effects of movement and perspective, as much as to compensate for these strong drugs, borrowed from the arsenals of the Baroque, a certain lack of self-confidence. Excited and congestion of the late Spanish Baroque lead to some artificial, artificiality. Besides Carreno selects the best role models, focused on the highest achievements of European painting: the lessons of Rubens evident in such paintings as "Mary Magdalene" (Madrid, Academy of San Fernando) and "Ascension" (Poznan, Museum). More simplicity, clarity, ease and organicity in the Louvre canvas "Reason Trinitarian Order" (1666).
However, more famous for his portraits of the artist. The heroes of these paintings - the first people of the country. But it is difficult to imagine a more miserable creature, . than King Charles II, . his pathologically elongated, . horse face, . bloodless from disease, . its absurd and hiloy figure and the desire to appear dignified and aloof impenetrable, . as his royal ancestors (portraits of Toledo, and Berlin),
. The artist writes and queen mother, Mariana of Austria (for example, the famous portrait from the Prado Museum). It is after the death of her husband's ever donned a monk and showed a complete renunciation of worldly concerns. But, . no one is lost and not won because, . that this simple-minded and ignorant princess, . became queen alien and incomprehensible to her country, . did not want to know about people, . ai, . problems of Spain and spent her time in prayer and crafts,
. The artist masterfully conveys modulations precious silks and brocades, gold and jewels shimmer, shine armor - but the last scion of the Hapsburgs bleak, colorless, lifeless.
. Imitating Velasquez, Juan Carreno wrote and court jesters, and some of the aristocrats of the King's entourage
. An example is the portrait of the Duke of Pastrana Prado. In the full force of his coloristic gifts and decorative flair wrote Carreno portrait Russian ambassador in Madrid Potemkin (this product is also in the Prado Museum). Pictures of our compatriots, made a brush of Western European Masters in pre-Petrine times, extremely rare and has so interesting for us.