Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich( Artist)
Comments for Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich
Biography Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich
Konstantin Makovsky (1839-1915). "I have not buried their God-given talent in the ground, but not used it in so far as to what could. I too fond of life, and it prevented me from fully their art ". Thus ends my brief autobiography, written in 1910 to commemorate 50 years of his artistic activities, a professor of painting Konstantin Makovsky. Today the name of Makovsky will be remembered more works genre painter in Moscow, Vladimir Makovsky, and only then - his elder brother Constantine, the representative of the so-called "pozdneakademicheskoy painting.
. Meanwhile, in the second half of the XIX century glory Konstantin Makovsky, and in Russia and abroad was certainly much higher popularity of Vladimir Makovsky, and other artists democratic direction
. 80-90-s of the XIX century paintings to. Makovsky on subjects from ancient history, . performed easily, . sweeping and flowery, . in particular its countless custom portraits of the aristocracy and high bourgeoisie, . were almost the standard of artistic taste for various strata of Russian society,
. Reputation of the artist was so high that realistic painting had, so her criticism of the beginning of XX century, to assert their aesthetic ideals in the tense struggle against the "power of the famous virtuoso of the brush and Baloven Society. This struggle has ended so well and neglect Makovsky so firmly established in the history of art that now have to "protect" the artist from the one-sided view.
. In its formation Arts Makovsky has experienced a complex effect, it combined the features of the Moscow and St. Petersburg school of painting, the experience Perov and heritage K. Briullov
. Ultimately, all these elements have been transformed into a broad, spectacular, consistently attractive "style of Konstantin Makovsky's" always the same regardless of the subject image.
. Makovsky was the eldest son in the family of the famous Moscow Art activist and amateur artist Yegor Ivanovich Makovsky
. Father of the future of the artist - one of the founders of a real class, served as the basis for the future of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture - was friendly with K. Bryullov, VA. Tropinin, SK Zaryanko. Not surprisingly, all children Yegor Ivanovich: daughter Alexandra, the sons of Constantine, Nikolai and Vladimir, brought up in the spirit of love for art, influenced by his father, scholar and enthusiast, an artist. "Those that came out of me, I feel obligated itself not the academy, not the professors, but only my father," - wrote in his declining years Makovsky.
. In the Moscow School of Painting and Sculpture, where Makovsky received in 1851, he learned easily and successfully, getting all the possible rewards
. Among the professors who taught here were MI Scotti, AN Mokritskiy, SK Zaryanko - disciples and followers K. Briullov. They may have instilled in the artist that "romantic enthusiasm", a tendency to exaggerate the picturesque effect, which distinguished him afterwards.
. After graduating from college course, Makovsky received in 1858, once in full-scale class of the Imperial Academy of Arts
. Since 1860 the artist exhibited at the annual academic exhibitions typical for the Academy of historical "programs" ( "Healing the Blind", 1860, AX USSR, "Agents Dmitry the Pretender kill son of Boris Godunov, 1862, TG).
. In 1863, along with thirteen other graduates of the Academy - contenders for a gold medal Makovsky refused to paint on the proposed theme of Norse mythology, and left the Academy.
. In 60-ies KEMakovsky was a member of the Petersburg Artel artists, led by INKramskoy
. His works this time ( "Widow," 1865; "Seledochnitsa", 1867, both - RM) were created in the wake of the general enthusiasm for Russian art genre, influenced by contemporary literature and magazine graphics. And she Makovsky's painting in those years - thick, viscous, with use Kolerov, zameshennyh Belisle, creating the characteristic earthy tone deaf - united by the artist with other "sixties". However, in the best picture of the early period of the festivities during the carnival at the Admiralty Square in St. Petersburg "(1869, . RM) among the "generic" take the democratic painting on the theme of the life of the people there are already features of the, . foretell the future style of Konstantin Makovsky: the energy of the free stroke, . brightness and color variegation, . Finally, . Choice "festive" plot, . which is most consistent with cheerful temperament of the artist.,
. In the 70 years Makovsky, . founding member of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions and active participants, . showed their work mainly genre ( "Children, . running from the storm ", . 1872, . Tretyakov Gallery, "Village funeral", . 1873) as the mobile, . and at academic fairs.,
. After a trip to the mid-70's in Egypt and Serbia, the artist exhibited two paintings, . had a Russian spectator great success, . - "The Return of the Holy Carpet from Mecca to Cairo" (1875, . National Gallery of Armenia) and "Bulgarian martyr" (1876, . State Art Museum BSSR),
. In spite of the opposite nature of the subjects (elegant festive and triumphant march in the first case and the scene of martyrdom - in the second), both paintings are executed in the same spectacular bravura-style. The plot, therefore, only a pretext for creating a luxurious picturesque spectacle, to demonstrate the virtuosity in the transfer of texture and color of objects.
. After elaborating his own elegant and striking style, Makovsky has gradually move away from collective forms of artistic life, becoming a "maestro" with a certain range of favorite topics, genres and techniques of painting
. Even in the early years of the artist painted portraits to order, and soon became a fashionable portraitist. Portraits of his work, . especially women and children ( "Portrait of SL Stroganov", . 1864, . State Tretyakov Gallery, "Portrait of the artist's wife", . 1881, . Timing; "Family Portrait", . 1882, . Timing; Portrait M.E.Orlovoy-Davydova ", . TG), . very different from portraiture Wanderers - ascetic, . seeking to embody in the external appearance of the model of its socio-psychological traits.,
. Transparent sliding texture, brilliance and attention to the beautiful entourage were the main reasons for the unprecedented success of painting Makovsky
. The artist himself so slightly ironic, recalled this side of its activities: "The best beauties vying posed to me ... I made great money, he lived with regal splendor and managed to write a myriad of paintings, decorative panels, portraits, sketches and watercolors.
. But finally the peculiar phenomenon, which can be called "the phenomenon of Konstantin Makovsky, formed only in the 80's, when the artist moved away from the Wanderers and began to organize personal exhibitions of his works
. In 1883, he has shown so now Boyarsky wedding feast in the XVII century, which was soon bought in America. It was followed by "Selection of the bride Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich" (1886), "The Death of Ivan the Terrible" (1888), "Dressing the bride" (1890), "Kissing the rite" (1895, RM). Due to the abundance of domestic details, antique beauty entourage, "noble" colors given in the unity of the overall gold tone, these works enjoyed the same success as in Russia and in international exhibitions. At the World Exhibition 1889 in Paris Makovsky of the painting "The Death of Ivan the Terrible," the Court of Paris "and" The Demon and Tamara "was awarded a gold medal. Foreign collectors willing to buy exotic "knights of genres, so most of these works the artist took from Russia.
. Moderate success Makovsky, its superficiality, made them "automatic" writing, a great number of typologically similar works have led to a negative attitude to his work later
. But while acknowledging all the weaknesses of this once-fashionable painter, I must say that his works were an expression of more uniform and appearance, but in his brilliant artistry. He puts a man into the element of beauty into the world of fine objects and subtle feelings. Against the background of a common ethical orientation of Russian art of the XIX century, he retained the right to painterly painting.