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MANET Edouard

( Artist)

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Biography MANET Edouard
Edouard Manet (1832-1883). In his book on Manet, Zola wrote: "Our work is deployed between the past and infinite future". These words could not be better suited precisely to Manet, the artist, is inextricably linked with the classical traditions and at the same time stood at the origins of art Newest Time. Edouard Manet was born in Paris into a wealthy bourgeois family.

His parents had hoped that his son will get a respectable legal education. But Manet tried to become a sailor (and even performed as a cabin boy trip to Rio de Janeiro). In the end, won his passion for art. During the six years (1850-1856) visited the studio of the famous Manet while historical painter Thomas Couture, with whom the young artist soon developed a very tense relationship. It was hard to find anything more opposite than the desire to Mane for the living and contemporary art and academic, stillborn "historicism" Couturier. Nevertheless, in the studio Couturat, demanded from his students study the Old Masters, Manet was introduced to the classical heritage. He diligently visited the Louvre, and after haute couture touring museums in Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria. The objects of his worship - Titian and Tintoretto, Rembrandt and Hals, Poussin, Delacroix and Ingres, but above all, the great Spanish - Velazquez and Goya. While Manet first arrived in Spain only in 1865, all his early work as it passes under the sign of Spanish painting. In the early 60-ies the artist sometimes close to "retell" in his works of Spanish masters, . and during the tour in Paris, Madrid Ballet Company (1862) wrote a series of paintings from live models of Spanish ( "Lola of Valencia, . "Guitarist", . "Spanish ballet").,

. However, despite its reputation as "the Spaniard in Paris" and roll with the other old masters, Manet from the very outset as an artist with a distinctive vision is inextricably linked with the artistic quest of his time
. Thus, one of his earliest works - "Absinth Drinker" (1859), seems a direct illustration of the "Flowers of Evil Baudelaire. The first truly ambitious work of Manet was the "Breakfast on the Grass" (1862). Composition of the painting was inspired by the figure Raf-ale and images "Concert" Giorgione. Man said to his friend, journalist A. Proust: "When I was in the studio, I copied Giorgione, naked woman with musicians. But I have everything will be different - I have to endure a scene in the air, surrounded it with a transparent atmosphere, and people will be such as we see them today. "

Ongoing roll with the old paint only emphasized the novelty of art Mane. In his picture, we see the living Parisians 60-ies of the last century, naturally located in the place of the classical characters. The public and critics shocked caller realism artist, its disregard of accepted academic canons of beauty, as well as the usual story "finished" images. Heroes Mane seemingly falling apart, not connected by surface plot relations, but united by one psychological and poetic atmosphere, imbued with the common sense of the mysteries of life. In striving straight at the viewer look naked woman (the artist wrote it with his favorite Artist's Model Quiz Meran) is daring and spontaneity, and a deep reverie. This standing over the age of poetry and depth of images alike in Man, with all its innovation, with the great masters of the past. She's in the next century inspired Picasso to create variations on the theme "Breakfast on the grass ... In the style of painting combined two characteristic Mane tendencies - the desire for open air and a more ductile material and picturesque manner. If a landscape painted light, luminous, as if blurred colors, the shapes and wonderful still life is a subtle harmony more condensed and contrasting tones. Starting with "Breakfast on the grass", rejected by the official Salon, and exhibited at the newly opened "Salon of the outcast," began an irreconcilable conflict with the official art of Manet. This conflict was exacerbated after the establishment in 1863 the famous "Olympia" *.

Just as in the previous canvas, the artist "modernize" in the "Olympia" traditional motifs, but made it even more shocking manner. Instead of a classical Venus or romantic odalisques it, according to one critic of the time, "depicted a naked woman on the untidy bed, and beside it a black woman with a bouquet of flowers and a black cat with arched back". Between these characters is even less direct connection than that between the figures of "Breakfast", but comes from a combination of solid and rich associations of the image, something in tune with the images of the poetry of Baudelaire. As naked in "Breakfast", "Olympia" (it served as a model for the same quiz Meran) looks at us look, as if personifying mysterious and triumphant power of art Mane. In regard to the picturesque "Olympia" - one of the vertices of the artist's. In her subtle and bold color harmony manifested the highest picturesque culture Manet, drew upon the experience of past masters. However, the French artist made this experience not only in modern energy, and conciseness, but also something fundamentally new. It summarizes the form, chiaroscuro and neglects the third dimension (Courbet's no accident that compared the "Olympia" with "playing cards"), seeking a special intensity of color. As a result, the picture is not only acquires the completeness of style, but it turns to a large extent, from the Renaissance "window to the world" in the poetic "way of peace". In the artistic principles of "Olympia" lay largely the origins of all subsequent European art, and "idoloobraznost" female figure directly foreshadowed images Gauguin. Other major works Mans 60-ies - "Breakfast in the Studio" (1868) and "Balcony" (1869), which was the kind of modern reinterpretation of paintings of Goya.

. However, creativity Manet by no means limited creation of large software tracks
. The artist is not by chance called "the painter of modern life". Eye Man, . - Wrote Proust, . - Was endowed with remarkable keenness, . Paris did not know flaneur, . which would have removed the many observations of his walks around the city ", . Manet wrote to the Paris streets and cafes, . jumps in Longchamp, . River scene in Arzhanteyle and marina, . naked women "of a toilet", . wonderful portraits and still lifes,
. It is this desire to make the subject of art itself and the surrounding reality rallied around the artist's young innovators, which was soon adopted the title Impressionists. Place of regular meetings Manet and his friends became cafe Guerbois in Batignolles quarter, hence the original name of the group - "batinolskaya". But while Manet largely contributed to the emergence of impressionism, he merged with the movement. His stubborn refusal to participate in exhibitions of the Impressionists, . outside the official Salon, . explained not only by aristocratic prejudices, . but also the deeper causes - more connections with the tradition, . greater internal stability of images, . which at Manet seem, . For all their spontaneous vitality, . snatched from the flow of time,
. Nevertheless, in the 70 years the artist was strongly influenced by Claude Monet and Renoir, which was manifested in particular in his later, unsurpassed mastery of the picturesque portraits of women and still lifes. One noteworthy outcome of Impressionist period and the entire work Manet painting was created by him "Bar at the Folies-Bergц¬re.

Picture this - a real extravaganza of light and color. Brush Mane transmits fluid brilliance of crystal, . gentle glow of flowers and lace, . heavy rdenie fruit, . subtle combination of purplish-black, . pink, . orange, . yellow, . silvery-lavender - a reflection, and reflections in a mirror attached around the enchanting nature,
. But in the center of it all - a charming image of a girl, in which Manet, as always, makes us feel the mysterious depths of the human person. With mirroring (reception, probably borrowed from the "Menin" Velazquez), the artist divides his image - insert it in the past the current life and sets over time. In this duality, the unique combination of instant and eternal, and was one of the main features of all the art Manet.


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