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Jacopo Pontormo

( Artist)

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Biography Jacopo Pontormo
Jacopo Pontormo (Pontormo) present. Pham. Karruchchi (Carrucci) (1494-1557). For a long time the art of Italian Renaissance went straight road trying to mimic nature, . liberation of the human body of medieval restraints, . identify individual features of the human spirit from under armor consuming ideas of supernatural spiritual world of the Middle Ages,
. The ideal of Renaissance culture, embodied in a variety of works - it is heroic in its power and clarity of the spirit of human personality, which accompanies it as it reflects the perfection of the beautiful nature. The result of this development was unexpected: the absorption of a man lost harmonic clarity of mind, freed from the old bandage, he suddenly found himself above the abyss, possessed by the terrible forces of incomprehensible. At this point, at the height of Renaissance, we see at one pole of the images of Leonardo, but on the other - the brokenhearted grief heroes late Michelangelo. Thus, at the time of the High Renaissance matured need to find innovative ways to develop culture. In the fine arts is the first realized Pontormo, which was the founder of the so-called maneristicheskogo or antiklassicheskogo directions. The term "mannerism" in its grounds has the word "style", that is the way the letter or character in the narrow sense - style artwork. Although recent origin, . term reflects the specific features of the new direction: the prevalence of individual taste of the immutable laws of nature imitation before and naturalness, . the spirit of formal experimentation in search of a new, . inaccessible Renaissance expressiveness,
. In a high degree of these features were peculiar to the art of Pontormo, who just does not sound like his recent works by contemporary masters of the Renaissance, it seems that belonging to another age, another art culture.
. In adolescence and youth Pontormo was a school for a number of prominent painters of the High Renaissance, among whom were Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Sarto
. On the full and perfect possession of the master of the most advanced techniques then demonstrates art mural at the Villa Medici at Poggio a-Kaya, created by Pontormo in the years 1519-1520. Here are depicted peasants, resting in the most casual poses a bright warm day under the canopy of tree branches. Four men and a dog are located near the low and very approximate to the front of the image plane of the parapet, the rest are sitting on the parapet, on the branches of a tree. Immediately above the parapet see the sky. The coloring differs extraordinary ease, lightness. In the fresco closely fused features of Late-Renaissance style and new ideas Pontormo. On the one hand, . in free poses artist conveys much valued Renaissance natural plasticity of the human body, . but, . another, . - The complexity of turning a variety of shapes and angles brought them to such an extent, . that they resemble abstract, . music and expressive forms,
. The motif of the parapet and towering above it allows the tree, . without violating the usual natural space environment, . essentially, . intricately arranged pieces at different heights in the same plane, . subordinate them to a rhythm, . associate mysterious connection subjective imagination of the artist,
. Classical conventionality tracks and images of the Renaissance is overcome in two ways: through the complexity poses, . superior natural expediency, . and arbitrary rhythmic figures game, . and also because of the unprecedented first plot of popular scenes and new, . deep realism of individual types,
. The coloring is close naturally, but at the same time easier and brightened up a special emotional expressiveness. As a result, Pontormo managed to free themselves from wear or became hysterical, tragic heroism of the Renaissance, images, create a penetrating picture of happiness and peace. Freed from the heavy role of the Renaissance. rights - the center of the universe, its peasants carefree rest, surrendering to the waves of the mysterious rhythms of life of the universe. However, the greatest place in the work of Pontormo took a deep tragic images, . as expressed primarily in his religious paintings and pictures, . Established in 1525-1528 years "Entombment" * for the Church of Santa Felicita in Florence, all new artistic ideas, . we noticed in the fresco Poggio-a-Caiano, . reach their full development,
. The action takes place on a fantastic neutral background. Figures are piled one above the other along the plane of the picture, and they seemed to lack seriousness, as if floating in various poses. The coloring is based on clean, discordant with each other colors. They put large patches and create a mystical lighting. (This new palette Pontormo formed not without influence permeated by the spirit of the Gothic art of the Northern Renaissance and especially A. Durer.) Dates back to the art of the Middle Ages folding in intricate patterns, if living, draperies and stereotype faces, which erased personality traits and expressions. However, dominates in this picture, terrible, unqualified, crushing grief. This is it leaves no room for personal, for the attention of the individual human experience, it deprives the figures of the soil under their feet, forcing them to float in the fractured postures and makes a terrible ghastly shade of glow paint. In the work of Pontormo world had a completely different light than the masters of the Renaissance. If they have the human person stands in the center of the universe, . filling it with their own impulses and. dictating their laws, . identity of a king or struggling, . full of inner strength, . decent or immoral, . then Pontormo main role is played by some atmosphere, . some mysterious force owning the world, . plaything which is hard to capture the man,
. This fundamentally new position allowed him to make a revolution in portraiture, take off his blinders and highlight the classic psychological depths of human beings. It must be said again that Pontormo was one of the first artists of Italy, and the figure is perhaps the most remarkable part of his creative heritage. To some extent, this conclusion is based on the fact that the drawings have survived in greater numbers compared to pictorial works and especially freedom of expression in the figure of fantasy and experimental spirit of his art. In human terms, as in his art, Pontormo is a new, unknown type of Renaissance artist. His real name was Jacopo Karuchchi, he was born in the village of Pontormo (and linked with what his nickname) in the family of the painter Bartolomeo Karuchchi and very soon lost all their relatives. He was a man of reclusive, eccentric, impractical, visionary, mindful of the work of the timing. Apparently, the artist is not so worried about the result of works, many of their process, the endless search for new solutions. He was ready to destroy their work, others seemed perfect to re-immerse themselves in the search and even improve your vision. Even in early youth Pontormo was predicted a great future, first by Raphael, Michelangelo and then, with the love he had last used his entire life. However, this does not made him arrogant. As a genius, absorbed in his art, Pontormo very little value attached to other people's opinions, but being a man of noble, generous soul, never knew envy and carefully, lovingly nursed their students.

. Influence exerted by Pontormo for the subsequent development of art, enormous
. Among his direct students allocated a. Bronzino.

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