Sebastiano Ricci( Artist)
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Biography Sebastiano Ricci
Sebastiano Ricci (1659-1734). History of world art is replete with examples of periods of profound political decline were temporary lifting of the highest artistic culture. A similar picture was a XVIII century Venice. As a result of wars with Turkey, the former 'mistress of the seas' has lost almost all its colonies in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean, had lost control over feed her Mediterranean trade, and was close to death. A Venetian painting experienced its last and vivid flowering. The old patrician birth, patronized primarily artists and provide them with orders, impoverished, their wealth floated into the hands of the nouveau riche. But patronage, beneficial for the development of art, has been extended to continue. It helped a new nobility to consolidate their position in society.
Among the painters of the first half of XVIII century, the most important figure is the master of the older generation, Sebastiano Ricci. He was born in Belluno, is administered by Venice from the XV century, and the craft of the artist studied in the capital have Sebastiano Mazzoni and a minor master, a native of Milan, Federigo Cherwell. Later, he perfected his style in Bologna in the school of Giovanni Giosefo del Sole and Rome in Luke Giordano, have had a great influence. Most of his life Ricci spent away from home. In 1684 his service resort Ranuchchio Duke of Parma, in connection with what he had to work in Piacenza and Parma. Later, he visited Rome and Milan, working on a new order in Florence, Tuscany, Ferdinando. In 1709-1712 years the artist traveled to Germany, France, Austria. After five years living in England. Only in 1717 he finally returned to Venice and finally settled down here.
Numerous patrols Ricci show wide recognition of his talent, stepped borders Italy. Among his clients were the most prominent personages The sovereign of Europe, the French Royal Academy of Fine Arts has made him a member of. But at the height of his fame he never tired of studying, taking over from local artists that seemed to him worthy of imitation. The main artistic impression Ricci associated with his Italian travels, with different centers of Baroque art. Here he could see the many variations of their favorite type of tracks with a lot of crowding on the ground or hovering in the skies of human figures, boundless spaces and sharp flashes of light near the deep darkness of the shadows. From the works of this kind is closest to him have a hand of Luca Giordano, with whom he could meet as early as adolescence, at the time of his apprenticeship in Venice. Luke visited here in the 50 years, and then in 1667. It was a brilliant painter, virtuoso, . writing with incredible speed, . different from their contemporaries easily figures, . bright color and cheerful, . filled with sensual imagery, qualities, . anticipates the art of XVIII century.,
. In Milan Ricci struck painting Alessandro Magnasco
. The deep tragedy of its content has remained alien to him, but the dynamic forms of expression that is created with the help of long rapid strokes, they were assimilated. Beyond the Alps in Europe, attracted the attention of the artist's works by Rubens, especially his female characters, full-blooded, yet light, sensual, but filled with warmth and tenderness. In France, Ricci took the time to visit the studio was still little-known Watteau.
. Returning to Venice, . Ricci is enriched his paintings unique qualities of the local color school of painting and has experienced very strong passion for creativity Paolo Veronese, . outstanding masters of the Venetian Renaissance, . which is particularly good at crowded, noisy scenes, . motley, . holidays,
. Some works Ricci this time largely repeated the Veronese canvases.
. All the various influences, tested Ricci, in his works melted into a single organic style, which, in turn, largely determined the path of development of European art in the first half of XVIII century
. Specifically, . painting Maruchelli palazzo in Florence, . performed by the artist in the years 1700-1707 and dedicated to the myth of Hercules, . had an undeniable influence on the largest XVIII century Venetian master Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, . as well as on French painting, . especially Francois Boucher.,
. In the artistic heritage of the Ricci can distinguish two groups of works
. One is a picture of a small number of figures and leisurely unfolding of the. They date back to the classic designs of Renaissance art and has undeniable advantages, but seem to be eclectic. Much more interesting are the works of another kind, where many characters are depicted in the turbulent motion. Thus, for example, is a painting of the church of San Alessandro della Croce in Bergamo 'St. Gregory frees souls of Purgatory'. In the lower right corner of the arrangement shown praying on his knees, Pope Gregory and inspiring his Blessed Jerome. Instead, the souls of sinners, languishing in Purgatory, and above - the angels, voznosyaschie these souls in heaven, where the clouds, as on a throne, sits the Madonna with Child. In order to achieve a wonderful poetic impression of lightness, Ricci portrays the figure as if floating, and this applies not only to a flying angel, but also in the land of saints, and to calmly seated Madonna. How he achieves this? All the characters are written very realistically, but they pose absolutely incredible, as though they have no power over the laws of gravity. Gregory, . kneeling, . not far throws back case with divorced his hands and upturned head; Madonna, . as strongly leaning back and nothing on the basis, . simultaneously strongly leaning toward the liberated souls from purgatory; baby on her hands so dramatically rushed forward, . that it can hold, . sure, . only weightlessness of his body,
. To facilitate the figures, the artist makes them widely gesture, as if their hands were replaced by wings. Moreover, he skillfully subjugates them rising upward movement and maintaining relief, flattens the form. The same purpose, it obscures the depth of the space blanket of clouds, so that the remaining infinite, it is, however, is deprived of its full capacity. Only in the bottom of the picture the distance suddenly magically opens romantic landscape. But the scale of his he so sharply opposed to the foreground, what is perceived rather than as a reality, but like a wonderful vision. It is possible that the landscape was painted by the master's nephew, an outstanding landscape XVII century Marco Ricci, who, as we know, happened to help her uncle in this kind of work. In exchange, he inhabited his pictures of nature solitary figures.
Even more remarkable it seems sketch for Vienna's altarpiece of the church Karlskirche 'Ascension Madonna', is being kept in the Budapest Museum. In a letter to Count Giacomo de Tassisu in 1731 regarding this product Ricci pointed out that the sketch is the original, which is embodied by all the fire of inspiration of the artist, and the large altarpiece, a copy of it. I must say that in the XVIII century connoisseurs are well understood and sought to collect such sketches. Painting Budapest Museum near the image of the church of San Alessandro della Croce in Bergamo. Like him, it is divided into two tiers: one group of figures, the apostles and other disciples of Christ is on the ground, the other Madonna on a cloud surrounded by angels - hovers in the sky. But the picture looks even more uplo-schennym and light, full of energy and fun movement and shine bright colors and blinding glare makes it both precious and quality products, and lively sense of air and light, really.
. Realist clearly written sheet Ricci at the same time deeply conditionally
. Apostles are represented here by witnessing unprecedented picture-they see the angels, straining with all his might, pushing up a cloud, on which sits Madonna. Conditionality is, of course, deliberately, it is an element of the game, which the master allowed himself to make a quite serious and consecrated by the authority of the church plot. And this game makes it particularly distinct feeling of joy and ease with which so remarkably art Ricci.