SERGELI Johan Tobias( Sculptor)
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Biography SERGELI Johan Tobias
Johan Tobias Sergeli (1740-1814). We can not say what is commonly known was accompanied during his lifetime the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergeli. Meanwhile, he was a remarkable personality, his classic, filled with marble compositions and portraits, a monument to King Gustav III to Stockholm, his schedule was well worthy of his lifetime of fame. In the work of the sculptor was a lot of complex, controversial and even mysterious. It passed at least a century after his death, before art historians took place Sergeli one of the founders of Western European neoclassicism. And today's art studies argues that the discovery of the true Sergelyakh yet to come. Among his contemporaries, sculptors, . enthusiastically mastered the traditions of antiquity, . such as the Italian Antonio Canova (1757-1822), . Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen (1768 - 1844), . German Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850), . Johan Sergeli, . unquestionably, . stands out particularly acute perception of the world, . unrestrained imagination, . power of the creative temperament, . nominating him constantly on the line between clear idyllically tranquil harmony of classicism and mysteriously disturbing, . full dissonance romantic art,
. This extraordinary character individualnesti sculptor was formed at the complex turning life's journey. Getting it was enough cloudless and prosperous, the end of the same - almost tragic.
Johan Tobias Sergeli was born on 28 August in Stockholm, in the family court engraver Christopher Sergelyakh (1693 - 1773). With sixteen years of a young man working in his father's workshop and at the same time taking drawing lessons from John Eric Wren, and a sculptor ornamentalists Adrien Masrelietsa learn drawing and sculpting. A year later, begin more serious training at the French sculptor Pierre Hubert Larsheveka, a student of the famous Edme Bushardona. The young man quickly making progress in the art of sculpture. Already in 1758 he was a student at the Academy, where he teaches Larshevek receives a "second annual prize" and is accompanied by a teacher in Paris. Three of the seven months spent there, Sergeli studying in the French Academy.
Returning from France, teacher and student about four years working together sculptural decoration of the main hall of the Stockholm Palace. During this time Sergeli semi -
chaet his first silver medal of the Academy (1761), the title of the sculptor (1763) and independent position in the palace building. Begins its work on the portrait medallions and reliefs. Ahead - the state grant for a trip to Italy, the first sharp turn in the creative destiny.
Before the young, aspiring sculptor truly open new horizons. Crossing the half of Europe, via Dresden, Vienna, Trieste and Venice, in August 1767 Sergeli arrives in Rome. "Eternal City", full of the living, tangible charm of classical antiquity, with its remarkable monuments of antiquity and the Renaissance long conquers his. He was captured by the painter Raphael and Michelangelo, copies of antiquities and Renaissance Designs. "I saw - he writes from Italy - that I know nothing and must start all over again ... Antiquity day and drawing from nature in the evening - that's what I was doing two years'. Four years (1771-1775) he learns in the French Academy in Rome. Here begins his friendship with who came from England and Dane Fц+ssli Abildgorom. Sergeli full of creative ideas and inspiration, he created his first compositions in the pure spirit of the ancient classics: "Jupiter and Juno, Venus and Anchises," "Europa and the Bull," and finally "Faun" (1774), who brings him his first real success. This, in essence, end the happy period of Italian art.
In 1778, King Gustav III to withdraw from Rome and appointed court sculptor. He returned home via Paris (where he was elected a member of the Academy), have you done in London. Since 1779 Sergeli back home. He - a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1790 - is already drawing professor at the Academy, and two years later - Knight of the Order of Vasa.
Mighty temperament sculptor expresses itself is multifaceted. He seemed to be unable to accept the inevitably long process of sculpture, multi-stage creation of monumental works in marble: Sergeli enthusiastically given to the art of drawing. Excellent school, . received in his youth, . originated in Italy's friendship with such a virtuoso image, . as Fц+ssli, . - All this finds its dramatic entrance and preparatory sketches for figure compositions and monuments, . and more - in separate figures sanguine, . pen, . ink - on mythological themes, . in satirical sketches, . cartoons, . genre scenes, . portraits and self portraits,
. Around here felt a sharp analytical mind of the artist, rich scholarship and freedom of expression. Sergeli wholly absorbed in art. He still has not got its own family. Are they alive memories of Italy, a close circle of friends of different races fellow artists, united by a common love of antiquity, the spirit of worship of beauty and a sense of freedom of the creative genius of the religious and social conventions. In 1783 Sergeli, bypassing the church marriage, joins his life with Anna Rellich HцгllstrцTm, which after nine years, becomes the mother of his two children.
But Sergeli in public service. King Gustav III at a year it takes away with him to Italy as cicerone. Second "Swedish period" ends with the creation of models of the monument to Gustavus III. Death of King in 1792 coincides with the birth of first child, a sculptor - his son, whom he calls Gustav. Sergeli loses its chief patron and client. Later he would say that the king's death, became a patron for the death of Swedish art.
The thin, fragile nature of the artist were unprepared for the difficulties, troubles, loss. 1792-1795 years - a period of deep spiritual depression Sergelyakh. It was at this time there are pictures, full of dark fantasy, the grotesque and ruthless self-examination (close Fц+ssli in content and manner of execution). In 1796 he loses his last support: Anna dies Rellich HцгllstrцTm. Quadrennial Gustav takes a couple of Forelius. Little daughter of Johan and Anna - Kristina just three years. The boy is educated with their same age, son Foreliusov, in the town of Eskilstuna. Sergeli spent a year at the estate of his friend Erensverda in southern Sweden and in Abilda Hill in Copenhagen. Thanks to the care of friends to the 1798 Health and sculptor some cases improved. He works hard, again deals with sculpture, performs a bust of Gustavus Adolphus IV, many of portrait work. In Germany, speak and write about him as an outstanding artist. His remarks Goethe himself. Last off inspiration Sergelyakh connected with his appointment in 1810 as Director of the Academy of Arts and a meeting with the new heir to the Swedish throne, Carl Johann. However, the wretched spirit of the artist's long withstand the new official duties. February 26, 1814 sculptor dies.