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TOPPELIUS Michael

( Artist)

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Biography TOPPELIUS Michael
Michael Toppelius (1734-1821). Since the end of XVII century, . after a temporary lull, . caused by the forcible imposition of Protestantism in Finland, . gradually activated temple construction, and begin to revive the monumental forms of painting, . entered in the middle of the next century at the time of his bright flowering,
. Despite the fact that the leading role in the construction of the temple belonged to the XVIII century stone architecture in small towns and villages, especially in the church continued to be erected from the northern areas of the traditional material, wood. Age-old traditions of the local cult of wooden architecture, closely related to the folk traditions of the peasant construction, especially carefully preserved in Finland. With interior design is such temples in the territory of Finland and has mainly concentrated on the creative activity of Michael Toppeliusa, . whose art marks a high rise in the development of monumental painting of Finland the second half of XVIII-early XIX century.,
. Toppelius born in the small Finnish town of Oulu
. The skills of professional artist, he received the Stockholm Academy of Fine Arts, but after graduation in 1752 he returned to his native place, which was connected all his further creative activity.

. Interiors of religious buildings, painted Toppeliusom, despite their characteristic style of unity, very diverse
. In the design of some visible Puritan tradition of Scandinavian medieval art, . in others reflect the experience of European masters magnificent Baroque, . third-embodied carefully preserved and passed on from generation to generation skills folk art.,

. Style Toppeliusa-master of monumental painting-final shape to the 60 th of the XVIII century and the first fully embodied in such a remarkable monument of this time, as the painting of the church in Peksemenene
. The interior of this church differs strict restraint, as restrained and his artistic decoration. Most interesting in the overall decorative composition izobrayaseniya Church of the Apostles, each image individualized, person of the Apostles have in-depth portrait features.

. In the next paper Toppeliusa in painting the church in Haukiputaan, made them from 1774 to 1779, clearly manifested the principles of baroque decoration
. Sam interior of this building by its nature is more similar to the spacious hall of the palace, than on the premises of worship. Decorative composition of this temple is more complex than the previous building. Painting it is not only almost all the space walls, and vaults of the temple. Here Toppelius acts as a mature artist, a virtuoso who owns various compositional techniques monumental and picturesque scenery. In its quest to create a single picturesque ensemble artist just trying to combine every graphic element with the architectural design. Such, . example, . seemingly, . 'neizobrazitelny' element, . as a window or doorway, . Toppeliusom included as a kind of spatial pause in oil paintings depicting scenes in 'Baptism' and 'Eucharist', . actions which develop on both sides of openings,
. The artist is so fluent in the picturesque scenery of the methods that did not avoid placing the image directly on the architectural seams connecting the arches, as it subjugates the architectural design of its compositional idea.

. Central place in the general composition of the interior belongs to the stage of 'Doomsday', . in the principles of the picturesque solutions which clearly manifested experience of European baroque scene riddled with rapid movement, . developing in different directions.,

. Placement of color accents painted very well connected with Toppeliusom architectonics, in the lower parts of the temple is dominated by heavy color, while the top is light transparent colors
. In general, the color of the paintings are very sonorous, . Toppelius actively involved in their tracks open local color (red, . emerald green, . golden ocher)-this love is the master to the bright color goes smart, . certainly, . to the traditions of national art, . particularly, . a painting on wood craftsmen, . so common in Finland.,

. Traditions of folk art, which was closely related to the art Toppeliusa, evident not only in its use of plastic devices, but in reading themselves religious subjects, in the immediacy and a certain naive interpretation of images
. So, full of sincerity and spontaneity of the image stricken with grief at the scene of Adam 'expulsion from paradise', as characterized by the image of Christ in the scene 'Praying for the Cup', whose face is hidden hope of salvation. Even more attraction to the primitive forms of folk reflected in the next work Toppeliusa-decoration of the church in Kempeliine (1765). Biblical and evangelical characters that appear on the walls of the church, deprived of any external ecstatic. In rugged full-fledged figures Marin, . staring in disbelief at the Archangel Gabriel in the scene 'Annunciation', . and the Magi in the 'Adoration of the Magi', . surrounding the infant Christ and with undisguised admiration, gazing at the divine messenger, . clearly discern the images of Finnish farmers, . so frequently seen in the paintings on the wooden chests and in the print style, . Toppeliusu familiar from childhood.,

. Groups paintings, which make up the greater part of the creative heritage of the Finnish monumental highlight the outstanding talent Toppeliusa inscribed his work bright page in the history of art in Finland.


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