Pavel Petrovich Troubetzkoy( Sculptor)
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Biography Pavel Petrovich Troubetzkoy
Pavel Petrovich Troubetzkoy (1866-1938). At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries Russian art came bright original artist who created the sculpture in different genres - from small to monumental sculpture - deep psychological images. P. P. Trubetskoy earned reputation as the first of the Russian sculptor, working with such amazing and made poetry proximity to nature.
Pavel Petrovich Troubetzkoy was born November 16, 1866 in Italy, in the intro, on Lago Maggiore, in the estate of their parents. His father - a Russian prince Peter S. Troubetzkoy, mother - American. In eight years, he is fond of sculpture and influenced by his brother Pietro, a decorative painter, performs the first sculpture for the puppet theater, two years later took lessons from a painter D. Rantsoni. Serious lessons sculpture began in Milan in 1884 in the studio Barkalaia, and then the E. Bazarro. However, systematic art education P. P. Troubetzkoy never received, but a rare talent and will have contributed to its success.
. In 1886, a young sculptor for the first time presented his work - a statue of a horse - at the exhibition in the town of Brera (Italy), and then his works appear in exhibitions in France and America
. He sculpts portraits, is engaged in animalistic plastics, trying to force a monumental sculpture. In 1891 takes part in competitions for monuments Garibaldi and Dante.
In 1897 Trubeckoy comes to Russia, the birthplace of his father. Seized by the new impressions, the sculptor is working hard and soon began to teach at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
The bronze sculpture "The Moscow cabby" (1898, RM) - the first work, performance in Russia. Genre scenes, it would seem, is traditional in its subject. These domestic scenes have met many times in the works of Russian sculptors - E. A. Lancere and L. V. Posen. For Trubetskoy was this embodiment of the first Russian experience, with no contemplation of ethnography, with captivating sincerity, the special plastic expressiveness of soft, flowing "forms.
. Hatched in the exhibitions of Trubeckogo were sharply criticized the conservative circles of the Petersburg Academy, . saw in its innovative methods of violations of the "classical" canons, . and attracted vnimaniE best representatives of Russian public, . artistic intelligentsia,
. Sculptor meets and moves closer to and. E. Repin I.I. Levitan, IN. A. Serov, F. I. Chaliapin. Most linked Trubeckogo friendship with A. N. Tolstoy. Sculptor evoked the liveliest sympathy of the writer. According to the Secretary-L. N. Tolstoy - In. A. Bulgakov sculptor Paolo Troubetzkoy ... belonged to Tolstoy's favorites ... He loved his easy-open soul, truth, hatred of the secular conventions, love for animals, vegetarianism ". Lev willingly posed for him and conversed with him in the studio of the sculptor and in his Yasnaya.
Bust A. N. Tolstoy (1899, RM) and statuette "L. N. Tolstoy on horseback "(1900, RM) acquired worldwide fame. Calmness and wisdom, tolerance for bigotry and hypocrisy, simplicity and generosity revealed to the distinctive character of the sculptor of the great Russian writer.
In 1900, the product P. P. Trubetskoy exhibited in the Russian department at the World Exhibition in Paris. For portraits L. N. Tolstoy, L. Golitsyn and the group "Moscow cabby" Trubetskoy, along with O. Rodin, awarded the highest award - the Grand Prize.
Then followed a series of portrait statues, other than spirituality and unique personality characteristics: artistically elegant and internally agitated and. I. Levitan (1899, RM), inspired O. I. Chaliapin (1899-1900, RM), cheerful, good-natured with. S. Botkin (1906, RM). Sculptural works P. P. Trubeckogo differ with new artistic techniques: painting mobility yet clear plastic forms, the desire to avoid the flat and smooth - inert - Surface. In this mobility, in the ongoing movement as if from the depths of forms disclosed intimate emotional face model.
Acute observation, poetry, softness of modeling is particularly found in women's portraits. Striking, in a ball gown, M. K. Tenisheva (1899, RM), aristocratic Golitsyn (1911, State. Art Museum BSSR), "Mother and Child" (1898, RM, TG), "Mother and son" (1901, RM), charming of models Dunya (1900, RM) - all of these works are notable for the originality of composite solutions and artistic techniques.
. Enveloped in lyrical images of children: "Children
. Nikolai and Vladimir Trubetskoy "(1900, RM)," Girl with a dog (Friends) "(1901, RM). The peculiar psychology - in the works of sculptor animalistic. Penetration such distinguished sculptor, as "Dog" (1899, TG), "A horse with a colt" (1899, Smolensk Regional Museum), "Siberian husky" (1903, RM), "Mount" (1898, RM) .
. In 1899-1909 years the sculptor working on a monumental statue of Alexander III
. For this special workshop has been built, the pavilion of glass and iron at Staro-Nevsky Prospect, near the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. In the preparatory stage Trubetzkoy were created eight small-sized models, four life-size and two in the scale of the monument.
. Having won the contest in 1900 to create a monument to Alexander III, Trubetskoy paid little attention to the comments of the commission for the construction of the monument
. S. YU. Witte's Memoirs "complains" quarrelsome nature "of the sculptor. Troubetzkoy, obviously, does not take into account the views and the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, saw in "model Trubeckogo caricature of his brother". However, the Dowager Empress, satisfied explicit portrait similarity, contributed to the completion of the monument.
. Monument to Alexander III was significantly different from many of the official royal monuments, the sculptor was far from the idealization of desire for ostentation.
. on horseback tyazhelostupnom,
In the land squeezed, the emphasis hooves
In half-sleep, the excitement of reach,
Motionlessly, clenching his jaw, is --
as expressed in. YA. Bryusov in the poem "Three idol," his impressions of the image "stynuschego over the crowd" autocrat.
Surprisingly accurate definition of the idea of the monument and. E. Repin: Russia, ground down by the weight of one of the most reactionary kings retrogressing.
As in many works that are clearly embodied the creative credo of the sponsors, said that "the portrait should not be a copy of. In clay or on canvas, I convey the idea of the person, the common characteristic that I see in it ". Regardless of the reliability of words attributed Trubetskoy - "not in politics. I painted one animal to another "- a monument evokes a feeling of dull oppressive forces. A. Benoit noted that this feature of the monument "is due not only masters of good fortune, but deep penetration into the artist's task."
. Even before the opening of the monument sculptor felt hostile attitude on the part of many members of the royal family and senior officials
. Nicholas II wanted to move the monument in Irkutsk, "send him into exile in Siberia, far away from their sons, outraged eye, and in the capital to erect another monument. S. YU. Witte says that the sculptor did not get a timely invitation to the inauguration of the monument and arrived in St. Petersburg later.
. Fell out of favor to the authorities and deprived of the opportunity to work on a new big orders, Trubetskoy going abroad.
. From 1906 to 1914, while in Paris, he creates sculptural portraits On
. Rodin, A. Frans, D. Puccini P. A. Muromtseva, in London performed a portrait B. Shaw. But Trubeckoy continued to participate in competitions and art exhibitions held in Russia. In 1912 in America (Chicago), then in Italy (Rome) arranged solo exhibitions P. P. Trubetskoy.
In 1914 Trubetskoi went to America, where he is building monuments to Dante (San Francisco) and General Otis (Los Angeles).
In 1921, he returned to Paris, and his later years conducting in Italy. For La Scala in Milan, he carved a marble statue of the famous Caruso, . He created a monument to the fallen soldiers in the Brera, . sculptural portrait of Gabriel D'Annunzio, . self-portrait for the Uffizi gallery in Florence, . portrait of one of the most famous Italian artists of the D,
With exhibitions of their works by the sculptor traveled to Egypt (1934) and Spain (1935).
Umer P. P. Trubetskoi in Italy on Feb. 12, 1938. Not long lived in Russia, P. P. Troubetzkoy has done much for Russian art, greatly expanding the limits of the plastic development of the world. The depth of its penetration into the image, temperament form, the uniqueness of manners had a tremendous influence on the development of domestic sculpture.