Ugryumov Grigory( Artist)
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Biography Ugryumov Grigory
Grigory Ugryumov (1764-1823) - painter, is inextricably linked with the Academy of Fine Arts, her loyal son and honest servant. Since 1770, the age of six, sullenly falls in an educational school at the Academy in the number of pupils of the third, from the foundation, receiving. In the early 1780's he - among the most capable students of the Academy. In 1785 a program of "outcast Hagar with his minor son Ishmael in the wilderness," the young artist receives a small gold medal (most of the year is not awarded) and the right to a pensioner's trip to Rome, . where copies antique statues, . Veronese and Guido Reni - "colorist" and "plastic", . to digest and then, . and other quality,
. In autumn 1790 Ugryumov returned to St. Petersburg and the following year took the vacant position of teacher in the class of historical painting, and since 1795 he has managed all classes of scenic. In 1797 he received the title of academician of the painting "The test force Jana Usmarya" in 1800 - the post of professor. Steady, confident career. Died Ugryumov high office, accessible artist - the rector of the Academy.
Ugryumov enjoyed among his contemporaries unlimited authority. In their eyes he was the "father of history painting, perhaps the creator of this genre, and his fame was eclipsed by the glory Losenko. "What is the expression of force in Pecheniz'ke edinobortse! What is dignity in the winner Kazan! What is the solemnity of the Holy election of the Young Michael! Painter, . filled with the love of the Fatherland, . He is worthy to bring the glory of immortality Russian heroes', . - Wrote about him an honorary fan of the Academy of M,
. N. Ants. Figure Ugryumova, indeed, in the public demand for an artist who embodied the ideals of citizenship in the spirit of the Enlightenment - and the material of Russian history. The commitment of Russian subjects of the distinctive feature of creativity Ugryumova, although he was not a pioneer here. Another quality of historical painting Ugryumova, . also has a great impact on his contemporaries, . - Commitment to the veracity of the historical situation, . costume and in general to a certain naturalness portrayed, . course, . within the academic system of XVIII century,
. In the painting "Solemn Entry of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in the city of Pskov, after their victory over the German knights" (1793) themselves inaccurate and even oddities in the image, . say, . Pskov Kremlin indicate, . that the artist diligently use the sources, . at that time were considered reliable,
. Moreover, he puts on the left just too "non-canonical" group of characters: an old woman carrying a baby, a girl and a woman in a crown. In the traditional academic painting as a whole, where everything is rigorously calibrated, and every gesture is significant, this group brings discord, because its meaning is unclear. But the meaning, apparently, and not to be found: the appearance of these characters - the result of a somewhat naive attempt to make the image more "life".
Ugryumov was an outstanding teacher. Many Russian artists are engaged in teaching, including the Academy, but Ugryumov - from those for which this fact can not be taken into account. This again affects affiliation Ugryumova academic walls, in which the transfer of traditions, cultivation of long-established norms, escort of some of the laws of art are the essence of a learning process, and actually works. Been in the history of the Academy teachers, whose role was to conserve the old and the artificial maintenance of his. Ugryumov, by contrast, has become a truly living tradition of transmission link. This peculiarity of his historical role, and therein lies its value.
Ugryumov - a "teacher of teachers" who will be the largest teachers beginning of the XIX century - Egorova, Shebuyev, Andrei Ivanov. But over their heads, he connects the tradition Losenko (which he picks up a greater extent than the direct disciples of the remarkable painter) Art begins with Romanticism. Ugryumov Kiprensky was a teacher, which, of course, more than Yegorov, useful lessons losenkovskie dramatic light, color, expressive pictorial narrative, not laden with dry details.
. The most expressive, most losenkovskaya in spirit Ugryumova painting - "The test force Jana Usmarya" (1796-1797), or "In the presence of Grand Duke Vladimir of Russia warrior son of a tanner has his power over the raging bull"
. Ian Usmar, tearing skin enraged animal, thereby proving their right to duel with hero-Pecheneg. Tensions climax, the sharpness of motion, stress once a human figure, which fell to the ground, stormy pathos, expressive light coming from the Baroque. Composition, of course, quite conventional, but still sufficiently united, whole. In the coloring prevail "Rubens" warm tone typical of academic painting, but here they are used more intelligently, in accordance with the plot.
. In "The Calling of Mikhail Romanov to the throne" (not later than 1800) Lessons Losenko evident in instrumentation gestures
. The central team, obviously, is built on the laws losenkovskogo "Hector's Farewell to Andromache". Particularly expressive plastic and light in a small sketch (1798).
In later years Ugryumov not receive orders, and large canvases so he does not write. But they are sketches, in which there is something new. The artist did not remain aloof from the heroic style of late Classicism. His sketch "Minin appeals to the prince Pozharsky of national salvation" (early. 1800-ies.) Imbued with the same spirit of strict heroics, the same restrained pathos, that monument of Martos. Similar to the famous group of sculptures and bit hard plastic figures, in which there is already flexibility in fine characters, "Alexander Nevsky" or "calling on the kingdom ...".
. Yet Ugryumov not followed the path of a cold classics of the sculptural forms, one static, which resulted in a late Classicism
. Spirit of XVIII century, has always maintained in his works. In the sketch titled it appeared in the diagonal emphasis songs coming from the Baroque.
Ugryumov done a lot for the development of Russian figure. Contemporaries believed that "he introduced the image of drawing more resolute, more free and more useful to the artist, and this is apparently true. As a teacher and as a draftsman, he drew attention to the expressive, picturesque part of chiaroscuro. The first in the Academy, he gives the job to the white paper (as opposed to shaded), at which the structure of the volume looks specifically and clearly. The first gives the job to the mixed technique (sanguine and charcoal). It is in ugryumovskom, free, and creative, the spirit will draw in the Academy Kiprensky and Brullov.