Tsekhanovskaya Mikhail Mikhailovich( Artist)
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Biography Tsekhanovskaya Mikhail Mikhailovich
Mikhail Tsekhanovskii (1889-1965). Tsekhanovskii, the main artistic achievement of which belong to the second half of the 20-th - 30 th year, felt the dynamic rhythm of his era with rare for a painter and graphic severity. The desire to grasp and express the time (in this context is not a historical period, . a continuing series of moments, . process of life itself) and the movement led Tsekhanovskaya for bold experiments in visual language and at some point regularly brought him from the sphere of pure graphics to another form of art, . one of the theorists and talented practitioner, which he soon became, . - Animation.,
. But before Tsekhanovskii went all the way, it is typical for the Russian artist, born at the end of XIX century
. My school experiences of drawing, a few years in Paris (1908-1910), where he worked in private Tsekhanovskii sculpture studio, and then the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, and from 1914 - the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. After graduation in 1918 Tsekhanovskii was mobilized into the Red Army, in 1923 he returned to Petrograd, where a few years engaged in various kinds of applied work, in particular, draws a link kinoplakaty.
. Getting serious creativity, . which can be judged from surviving works (early pictorial experiments did not reach us), . refers to 1926, . when Tsekhanovskii came to publishing "Rainbow" and a children's editor Lengiza and began to illustrate books and draw there for kids and teens,
. It was a time (just over a decade - since the mid 20's until the second half of the 30-ies), . when Leningrad was formed and has been active in a group of talented illustrators, . giving books to children the status of highly, . entertaining and educational phenomenon of culture,
. Tsekhanovskii organically joined the group, whose leader was V. Lebedev, and took in her special place, find your specific area illustration. These were mainly books, telling children about technology, the discoveries of the structure of everyday objects and how they are made.
. In books popularizing science and technology Ilyina, . S. Marshak, . B. Zhitkova and other authors, . which Tsekhanovskii decorated and illustrated, . He caught up and then developed and filed with the visual artistic expression peculiar to that time, industrial pathos, . delight at the beauty of industrial designs, . different machines,
. In the genre of popular science books for children with Tsekhanovskaya could compete only N. Lapshin - in fact the creator of a special type of cognitive images. But Lapshina mainly interested in books of scientific, historical and historical-technical nature, the stories about machines of bygone days and travel - that is not technology itself, but primarily people associated with the technique.
. Tsekhanovskii as its main character is often done just the machine, thing, object
. For example, in the book Ilyina Pocket comrade "(1927), he with great care and knowledge of the case draws the protagonist - a folding knife with its blade, nail file, ruler.
. Illustrated Tsekhanovskaya to show love to a subject sensitive to its texture, materials, devices
. This attention to the things it was a sign of time. Creativity Tsehaiovskogo has a common nature with the then artistic design and graphics applied, with interest running from cubism to the texture of things and its structure. Baby pictures Tsekhanovskaya should be regarded as a manifestation of the revolution in aesthetic ideas and artistic culture of the time. The coup put human face of the world, raschislyaemogo and modified using the machines, the world clearly, a man under authority space and accelerated run-time.
. For the artist's aesthetic development of the world was in rem - tangible and visible
. Subject to Tsekhanovskaya a quote from life document. Hence, in the illustrations of the artist factual accuracy, graphic dryness, reaching to Part, the front and the complete absence environment - light, spatial depth. Subject Tsekhanovskaya extracted from the medium and placed on a white background page, as a neutral display case. This showcase the artist deploys a coherent story, placing the main subject, such as a tram (in the book Marshak "Seven Wonders", 1926), surrounded tickets, coins, bags conductor and t. d.
The admiration of the world which is full of trams, locomotives, ships, planes and automobiles, the world is not standing in one place, permeates most famous book Tsekhanovskaya "Mail" with verses Marshak (1927). The book is filled with movement, the letter in it goes, flies, races across the world in pursuit of the addressee. The book is based on the principle of mounting frames. Several times on different pages appear envelope, which adds new stamps, the amendments address labels. As a result, the impression one time, during which a fragmented set forth in the drawings, the origin of all the spatial displacement.
. "Mail" as a story about the journey expressed in its pictorial texture of the artist's desire to go in the illustrations of the fragments stopped traffic and interrupted times
. Apotheosis of moving the hearts of the people owned the era of great building projects, the era, who lived the slogan "Time, Forward", "Towards a counter, and T. d. Acute rhythmic, . rapid dynamics Tsekhanovskaya filled with works of his contemporaries - such, . Deineki with its numerous runners or industrial motives, . which there is always something spinning and spinning, . Gull (football), . Labasa, with its airships and steam engines and many others.,
. We Tsekhanovskaya relation to man-made machine, piercing inert space (the same airship - in his book, Zhitkova "Hurricane"), was tinged with romantic pathos
. His favorite hero was a locomotive with a drawn vehicle movements - the visible embodiment and symbol of the technical re-create the world. In response to the era of "Our forward, steam locomotive" Tsekhanovskii tried to fill the real movement of their. From the illustrations with their conventional dynamic rhythm of the story, in which the motion is cut on the moments of statics, Tsekhanovskii moved to the so-called kinoknizhkam. It was the publication on stiff paper, . the pages which were painted the same slightly varying motives, . such as consolidation, . that is, as if some phases of motion, . that rapid paging create the effect of reviving the image - the approximation of the same train ( "Train", . 1927),
. It was only a step to the kinetic art, and Tsekhanovskii this step. He began to translate his drawings on film.
Receive multiplier (multiplication of static phase) was known before the invention of cinema as such. Painted on paper tape pictures of Emile Reynaud were first designed films. With the invention of ways to fix the image on photographic film the opportunity to capture phase of the movement directly on the film, no storyboards on paper. Tsekhanovskii not only shot animated films, he appeared in the press with the justification of his understanding of art. Animation he called "a new branch every kindred organically". This view had to defend, as then designed films were considered not serious kind of cinema entertainment (murzilki "in terms of the 30-ies). In fact, a cartoon to the cinema but the film has nothing to do, and Tsekhanovskii was fully human, arguing in his article "From murzilki to great art, that the animation - it's a new spatial-temporal form of art.
. The first experience of treatment for the film have been Tsekhanovskaya revival "Post" (1928)
. This cartoon brought him international fame. Made in the technique, he was flat puppets on hinges, phase of the movement which were laid directly in front of the lens. Conditional angularity and mechanistic figures of postmen, inevitable in such a way fazovok, was not a disadvantage, specific artistic language. Formal features of this and other films Tsekhanovskaya (eg, . unfinished "Tales of the Priest" by Pushkin) overlap with the total for the world of art 20-ies focus on mechanistic movement, . verging dummies, . in such seemingly unrelated phenomena, . a cubist-constructivist painting or image cast by Charlie Chaplin.,
. In 1930 he went voiced version of "Mail"
. To achieve the synthesis of sound and image Tsekhanovskii decided to adjust images to previously recorded sound track. In accordance with the sound structure of music and text, he built a visual outline. As a result, Tsekhanovskii wrote in the article "Specificity tonfilmy" turned "art, which first met in the history of music and every". This technique subsequently became one of the leading ways to create sound animation.
After the "Post" before Tsekhanovskaya opened new horizons of art - "sounding dynamised Painting. He always thought himself an artist, but the creative task took him beyond what could give the paper and ink. In the most vivid form Tsekhanovskii showed himself an artist, a synthetic type in the movie "Pacific 231" - a symphonic poem about the locomotive. It was an artistic experiment in the field of artistic interactions, images and sound. Music A. Honegger served as a mounting axle for visual images of three kinds - full-scale map of the engine and its parts, the conductor and musicians, some close-ups of the orchestra - ballooning of the cheeks, fluttering bows and t. d. This was actually the first attempt kinoillyustratsii symphonic music. In the world we re regular locomotive Tsekhanovskaya caused great interest and recognition. Serious art history journals devoted extensive reviews of this work.
After the war, the artist worked in Moscow. His cartoons have repeatedly won prizes at international festivals.