Johann Gottfried Schadow( Sculptor)
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Biography Johann Gottfried Schadow
Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850). Unlike many masters of the XVIII century, Schadow the sculptor was not ancestral. His ancestors were peasants, he himself was born in a large family of Berlin tailor Gottfried Schadow. Even at school he stood out among his peers love to draw. In 1775 in Berlin at the invitation of Frederick William arrived Parisian sculptor Jean-Pierre-Antoine Tassar (1727-1788) to lead the courtly sculpture studio. Tassaru reported Schadow talent, and he invited the boy to his. Wife Tassara, FцLlicitцL Tassar, artist, student F. Boucher, beginning with him to engage. Johann drawing, copied paintings of famous masters, mainly Boucher, who was his mentor, valued especially highly. Simultaneously Shadov began attending sculpture studio Tassara. Shortly before Schadow faced the problem of choice: to devote himself to painting, more precisely, drawings and prints, or to become a sculptor. Now he began to draw a lot of gypsum, mold clay, make plaster models and learn their translation into marble. However, in his early works - bust Henriette Herz - nothing is talked about plastic gift. Tassar not interfere with work, but he believed that Schadow great ability to engraving than to the sculpture. Schadow was a master teacher, brought up mostly of French ii Netherlands plasticity XVII-XVIII centuries. He was unfamiliar with ancient sculpture, although he was influenced by the ideas of Winckelmann I.. Tassar was known for his decorative work performed in marble and adorn the present day parks of Berlin, Potsdam and Sanssouci, as well as portraits.
Soon classes with Tassarom ceased to satisfy Schadow. Since 1780, he started attending the Academy hudorisoval, copied paintings of famous masters, mainly Boucher, who was his mentor, valued especially highly. Simultaneously Shadov began attending sculpture studio Tassara. Shortly before Schadow faced the problem of choice: to devote himself to painting, more precisely, drawings and prints, or to become a sculptor. Now he began to draw a lot of gypsum, mold clay, make plaster models and learn their translation into marble. However, in his early works - bust Henriette Herz - nothing is talked about plastic gift. Tassar not interfere with work, but he believed that Schadow great ability to engraving than to the sculpture. Schadow was a master teacher, brought up mostly of French ii Netherlands plasticity XVII-XVIII centuries. He was unfamiliar with ancient sculpture, although he was influenced by the ideas of Winckelmann I.. Tassar was known for his decorative work performed in marble and adorn the present day parks of Berlin, Potsdam and Sanssouci, as well as portraits.
Soon classes with Tassarom ceased to satisfy Schadow. Since 1780, he started attending the Academy of Arts, nineteen young men went to Dresden and Vienna. Then off to Florence, where admires the works of Michelangelo and Giovanni de Bologna, examines the monuments of urban areas. But really Schadow imbued sculpture in Rome, where he spent two years (1785-1787).
In this era, Rome became the center of Classicism. Painters and sculptors created their works under the influence of "Oath of the Horatii" Jean-L.Davida and "Theseus and the Minotaur" A. Canova. Schadow entered the private academy triple Alexander (1744-1793) - one of the followers of J. Winckelmann, educating their students in the spirit of classicism. Most of the time Schadow conducting, studying ancient Rome. He works in the Vatican and the Capitoline Museum, in the French Academy in Rome, has close ties with French artists. Here he met with A. Kanovei, and this acquaintance grew into a close friendship that lasted throughout the life. Schadow participating in the Competition Balestra, where to stand, now lost, a group of "Perseus and Andromeda", made in terracotta, and receives for her gold medal. The clay statue of Achilles, made in Rome in recent years stay there Schadow, shows how far he had gone from Tassara under the influence of ancient monuments in the sense of plastic form and interpretation of material. Slim figure proportions and surprisingly soft elaborate model he borrowed from the Greek originals. In Berlin, becomes aware of the talent of the sculptor. In 1786, in a letter to his son's mother Schadow said the visit Minister von Haynitsa and wrote: "I was proud that he wanted to see your mother."
. When the sculptor returned to Berlin, he was elected a permanent member of the Academy, and after the death Tassara Schadow replaces him as director of all formal sculptural works and becomes head of the court sculpture workshop
. Since that time, and for nearly forty years Shadov swamped with orders. In his workshop, he drew sixteen assistants, a great many works himself.
Architectural work in Berlin at this time headed by architect K. Langhans, whose work was a whole era. It starts with the cooperation of two major German artists end of XVIII century. Schadow creates a lot of reliefs for the facades of buildings in Berlin. In late 1780-ies Langhans constructs Vrandenburgskie gate, trying to combine in one building Athens propylene with Roman triumphal arch. For the Brandenburg Gate quadriga Schadow performs horses, and then completes the ensemble gate statue of Mars, which became the symbol of the German capital. It significantly influence the images of Michelangelo and the antique statues of "Ares" from the villa Ludovisi.
In 1780-1790-ies Shadov create their best works. Among them, the tombstone of the young Count von der Mark, located in the church of Dorothy in Berlin. Here he abandoned the pomp of baroque tombstones and created a work full of restrained grief and sorrow in a spirit of high classicism, where the clarity and nobility of silhouettes created a rhythm of lines and planes comparison. Tombstone is made up of a sarcophagus and a few pieces made of him. On the sarcophagus Shadov put a figure like a sleeping boy. "A beautiful boy is fresh as morning dew," - said admiringly of him Caroline Schlegel.
One of the leading creative Schadow is the theme of a beautiful woman. He completed a bust of his wife Marianne, attracting softness and subtlety of mind at the same time warehouse. Throughout his life the sculptor created portrait busts, filled with inner tension and strained expression, characterized by generosity and intensity of spiritual life.
. One of the most beautiful images of women's portraits of XVIII century is a sculptural group Schadow "Princess Louise and Frederick"
. Working on it, a sculptor, first performed two separate busts, then the model group, which exhibited at the Berlin Academy in 1795. It caused a wave of approval and enthusiastic responses. Treatment portrait of the sisters has no analogies in the art of the late XVIII century. She is new on a plan. Older sister, Louisa, Frederick embraced by the shoulder, she clung to her like keeping her sister. Kontrapost, which gives the figure of the eldest sister, boldly applied here Schadow, - one of the achievements of this sculptural group, taken in the antique plastic. It is no accident she recalls terracotta Tanagra and close to the Greek plastics. The composition is close to the antique sculpture group "Cupid and Psyche", . which Shadov studied in the Capitol Museum in Rome, . and partly ancient group of "Three Graces", . that twenty years after Schadow interprets as his great friend A. Canova,
. Theme of friendship, spiritual unity, which Shadov embodied in this work, anticipated many of the images of German romantics beginning of the XIX century. In the work on the embodiment of sculpture in marble Schadow employ their assistants. The treatment of soft folds of classic garments he had entrusted to Claude Gaussot, while he concentrated on the implementation and elaboration of plastic both sisters. The group became one of the best works of German sculpture of the second half of XVIII century, its appearance was regarded as an event in the cultural life of Berlin and has allowed von Schadow Haynitsu called the greatest sculptors of his time.
. Schadow was known not only as a sculptor, but also as a talented schedule
. This is another side to his talents. Throughout his life he worked on a series of portraits of relatives and friends, created a caricature of Napoleon's army and political developments in Europe beginning of XIX century. Great interest and literary heritage Schadow, his letters and diaries.
Although the artist has continued to work until 1830, his later work is not as significant as early. His best works he has created it in the XVIII century. Activity Schadow closely linked with the growth of Berlin, has turned into one of the largest cities in Europe, the design of which is the important one is the sculpture of the famous wizard.