El Greco( Artist)
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Biography El Greco
El Greco (1541-1614). In the face of Domenico Teotokopuli, known as El Greco, the island of Crete for the second since the remotest antiquity, became home to unparalleled innovation. Domenico was born in 1541 near Kandy, the capital of the island, in the village Fodele, in a poor but educated Greek family. Rough mountainous terrain of Crete subsequently became part of his paintings, and the palette will always remain iconic glow gold archaic Cretan school, together with the Byzantine elongation of figures. Early in knowing the basics of skills, Domenico leaves impoverished homeland for the sake of the rich Venice, where, entering the studio of the famous Titian, quickly mastering his brilliant Colorism and freedom of the brush, without ignoring the discoveries and dramatic Tintoretto. The rapidly growing student helped decrepit Titian in the performance "Martyrdom of St.. Lawrence, commissioned by the King of Spain Philip II, and at the same time fulfilled the first own composition "Jesus and the money" and "Healing the blind", which, as usual, then do not repeat.
. Impatient with the hopes of the urgent need of self Cretan led away to Parma, where one more step to his creative relaxedness become acquainted with tremulous chiaroscuro of Correggio
. Caught in 1570 in Rome, the young stranger soon became known there as "the Greek, a pupil of Titian, got influential customers at the papal court, and began with the success painting portraits. He was able to quench their intellectual thirst in the rich libraries, and even began to collect his own, when suddenly one single phrase has destroyed so good start. Between the literal deification of Michelangelo Greco allowed himself to criticism of his frescoes, as filed against a Roman counterparts, already jealous of the independence of nature and the growing success of a stranger. Therefore, his departure from Rome was like a flight, while still being in the studio of Titian, 25 years implement the order of the Habsburgs, Domenico thinking about a trip to Spain.
. Around 1575 in search of the greatest possible freedom of expression of El Greco arrived in Madrid, but here he also failed to settle down
. Desire to have a shelter, he finds only in the old Toledo - the former capital, which had lost political importance, but retained the charm and aristocratic culture. Immediately after joining the work of El Greco and the lifestyle did not want to keep up with the Toledo nobility, having rented the former palace of the Marquis de Villena with its dark glory refuge perfume. I do not fully strange magic, the artist began to live in a big way in the royal apartments, which started an extensive library and home orchestra, delighted at the magnificent reception of new friends from the local religious and secular elite. Versed in many areas of expertise, El Greco and his art was universal, and often he played not only painting, but the architectural design and sculptural decoration of many altars in the churches of Toledo and Madrid. Monasteries and prelates of Toledo El Greco filled orders, although the board with grasping churchmen not once had to charge in courts, as debts and expenses of the artist has always exceeded its income. Opinionated, he forced the clergy stiffly citadel of Catholicism come to terms with the illegal presence of his wife and an illegitimate son, who, incidentally, gave his name.
. In 1579, finally achieving an order from El Escorial, the wizard created the painting "Vision of Philip II" - the first of many riddles posed painting by El Greco
. It stared vye expressed particular originality of his world view - as it were, between reality and dream, where the diversity and depth of infinite space is determined solely by the power and depth of feelings. Such unrestrained artistic tyranny could not come to taste Philip II - after the "Martyrdom of St.. Mauritius ", executed in the same manner, the royal orders ceased.
. In "Funeral of Count Orgaz" (1586), . embody the most complete characteristic of the Greek plexus earthly and the heavenly, . where the characters seem more real vision of living with friends of the artist, . Toledo to know is revealed in all its essence, . proud and strange,
. Spiritual weight as is typical of those contemporaries of Don Quixote as the ephemeral nature of their real existence.
Since that time, each piece is the approach to the Greek mystery. This is a whole set of tools - bold contrasts of light and shade, the virtuosity of painting, almost tactile perceptibility of details and complete subjectivity of a. The specific style was adopted through the small master paintings from the life of Christ and Mary, who in a variety of subtly changing copyright reps grow in the whole series. All their characters are obsessed with the idea of spiritual search and asceticism, as the author himself. These are the heroes of his "apostolad - meek and the militant Peter Paul, as the two sides of his own soul Greco, but the soul that holds the whole space. Because Christ is his "Crucifixion" is not so much hangs as rises over the world, and the figures of the Apostles in the "Descent of St.. Spirit "remind waving huge candles.
In the name of revelation and shock shower Greco ignites colors and makes the color density of the restless, forcing the dynamics of the stroke, shape, space. Who lived far from a hermit, he chose a solitary journey in art, because the students had hardly any, and his son Jorge Manuel, crushed by a powerful personality father, was only a diligent imitator. Nevertheless, over the ten years since the creation of "Orgaz", Greco made a real revolution in painting. The death is not an artist who loved to Philip II, followed in 1598, Greco painting gets the official recognition. From now on, when he protects the newly appointed archbishop of Toledo, nothing prevents an ardent admirer of the Cretan proclaim him "Apelles of our time". He performs many portraits of influential persons, among whom rightly considered the most expressive image of the Grand Inquisitor, Cardinal Don Fernando Nuц¦o de Guevara. The author managed to catch the secret of the great storm of monumental self-restraint, as a monument, the Prelate. But even after the success of his portrait of El Greco is not awarded the title of court painter. For a truly valued his innovation only people independent of tastes, which, paradoxically, belonged Nuц¦o de Guevara, whose reign, however, could be considered mild in comparison with other inquisitors.
. Casting aside thoughts of Madrid, Greco wholly szhilsya to Toledo, making him the center of his, saturation passions, peace
. Is no accident, even his only hero of the ancient Laocoon dies on the background of Toledo. The highly popular town, he wrote many times, arbitrarily recreating, swapping the cathedral and castle, transforming the bends of the river and the terrain, but always keeping the main thing - the uniqueness of their Toledo. Final in this series of painting "Toledo in a storm" with a brilliant surprise combines drama, monumentality, and a soulful lyricism of the author. For a storm to heaven - the visible embodiment of emotional storms.
. This confirms the last seventy El Greco's masterpiece "The withdrawal of the fifth seal" - an apocalyptic plot, where the resurgent body as untwisted springs upward as if screwed in a frighteningly ominous sky last day of the world
. Not in vain younger friend of El Greco - a poet and preacher Hortensio FцLlix Paravicino calls the painter portrayed his "divine rival Prometheus". But not accepting innovations Greek teacher Velasquez Pacheco at acquaintance found him "a wonderful man," "great philosopher" that affects invincible logic in arguments and even has its own fully complete esthetic system. He described it in several treatises on painting, architecture and sculpture.
. El Greco, Domenico died April 7, 1614, . bequeathed to his son remains of the former luxury - scanty wardrobe and furniture, . collection of prints and the library - the only, . not squandered, . preferring to starve to live out together with books and paintings in the living room had remained the sole of a suite come into full running of the palace.,
. Violations of the usual, the prisoners in El Greco's artistic visions were so great that, when together with the magic of life cut short direct impact of his personality, his name was initially surrounded the conviction, and then swallowed oblivion
. Two or three students, during the lifetime of diligently imitated the masters, now joined the mannerism, and Jorge Manuel Teotokopuli generally left painting classes for architecture. Only a genius Velazquez, appreciated the poignancy of portrait characteristics Greco, in his own developed it into a portrait of Pope Innocent X.
. Even the magnificent porphyry sarcophagus, in which the Greek was buried, mourned and sung in verse Paravicino gifted and great Luis de Gongora, disappeared, as well as theoretical writings of the artist.
. This assessment inimitable innovation Domenico El Greco, the newly "open" at the end of XIX century, came only in the XX century.
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