Daniel Romanovich( From the kind of Vladimir-Prince of Volyn)
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Biography Daniel Romanovich
Daniel Romanovich (count. 12) from the family of Prince Volodymyr Volynskyy. Progenitor Golitskih princes and kings (junior branch). Son Roman Mstislavich. Genus. in 1201, Mr.. Kn. Galicia in 1205 - 1206, 1211 - 1212, 1229 - 1231, 1233 - 1235, 1238 - 1255 he. Kn. Tihomlinsky and Peremyshl'skii in 1211, Mr.. Kn. Vladimir-Volyn in 1212 - 1231 he. King of Galicia in 1255 - 1264 he.
Wife: from 1215 g. daughter of Prince. Toropetzkaya Mstislav Mstislavovitch swashbuckling, kn. Anna.
+ 1264 g.
In the year of his father's death by Roman Mstislavovitch Daniel was four years old, and his brother Vasilyek - two. Roman, who had a tough and restless disposition, left many enemies as in Russia and abroad. Above all, he had enemies in the Galicia. Local boyars, rebellious and disobedient, difficult to carry the reins of princely power, was ready at any time on treason and rebellion, and the circumstances afforded to many opportunities. Galich, wealth, and the crowd competing with itself Kiev, was a desirable prey for many southern and northern princes. All this boded for Daniel quiet reign, if only he was not going to cede their rights fully. And, indeed, can hardly be found on the Rus prince, even in these turbulent times, lived an equally stormy and rich in various events of life.
Rurik Rostislavich Kiev, forcibly tonsured in the Roman monks who had scarcely heard of the death of Roman, immediately threw off his monk's robe and declared himself Prince of Kiev instead of his son. Chernigov prince also went up and came with shelves to the Dnieper. Rurik came out to meet them, and the princes had agreed to go together to Galich, take away the inheritance from the sons of the Romanovs. On the river Seret allies met Galich and Vladimir-Volyn army, fought with him all day and forced to retreat to Galich. However, they failed to take the city and returned without any success. The cause of failure was the fact that in Galicia was a strong Hungarian garrison, out of fear that Galicians did not dare to be transmitted to the enemy Romanovich. In Hungary, while the King was Andrew II, who took the throne in the year of the death of Roman, with whom he had a close friendship: the two vowed to each other that if one of them outlive the other, then the other would take care of the family of the deceased. Upon learning of the death of Roman, Andrew decided to fulfill his promise regarding the family of the last. In Sanok, he had a meeting with the Dowager Duchess Galician, adopted Daniel, as my dear son, in the words of the chronicler, and sent five of the nobles with a strong army, which helped to save Galich of Rurik and his allies.
But the dangers and evils for the sons of the Romanovs were just beginning. next in 1206 all the princes of Chernigov met Vsevolod Svyatoslavich Red on Diet. Vladimir I. Seversky came with his brethren, and to them came from Smolensk, Prince Mstislav Romanovich and his nephew, it's set Polovtsy, and all marched across the Dnieper. In Kiev, joined with them Rurik and his sons and nephews and Berendeys, and went together to Galich on the other hand went to the same Lesco Polish. Galician princess with its a-their followers in fear Ambassador-la for help to the Hungarian King. Andrew went with all of its shelves. But Romanov's widow and children could not wait for the arrival of the royal: in Galicia started a strong insurgency, which forced them to flee to the old parish Roman Mstislavich Vladimir Volynsky. Galicians left without a prince, and yet the king crossed the Carpathians, with the two sides approached the Russian princes and Poles. But they both stopped when he heard about the arrival of King Andrew. He also stopped, afraid to run concurrently with two enemy ratyami. Domestic Troubles, . excited by Queen Gertrude and her brothers, . demanded the return of Andrew's home: he hastened to enter into peace talks with Lesco and agreed with the Galicians, . that they took to their reign of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, . Prince Perejaslavskogo,
. Then Andrew went back to Hungary. But Galicians, without waiting for Yaroslav, secretly sent to Vladimir I. Seversky to call him to his princes.
The initiator of this decision were two Boyar; being banished Roman, they lived in Seversk area, and now returned home and began to praise Igorevich. Vladimir I. and his brother Roman, having received an invitation, at night, stealing from other princes, jumped in Galich. Vladimir got to rule here, and Roman - in Zvenigorod. But not I., . nor Galician boyars, . who engineered a revolt against the sons of the Romanovs, . could not calm down until, . while the latter were alive and free in his paternal abode - Vladimir Volynskoye: here was a priest, . Ambassador of the Galician prince, . and announced to citizens on behalf of the latter: "Do not stay in your city, a stone, . if not betray me Romanovich and do not take to his reign of my brother Svyatoslav ",
. Angry Vladimirec wanted to kill the priest, but three of the boyars - Mstibog, Monchuk and Nicephorus - persuaded them not to do. It soon became clear that these three were not acting out of respect for the rank of Ambassador, but because he favored the Galician prince. The next day the princess found out that came to the Ambassador of Galich in Vladimir, and that there are people who are in favor of I., then began to consult with the country boys of his son, Mstislav: he said that has nothing to do, must soon flee the city. At night, through the hole in the wall, the wife of Roman came along with Mstislav, a priest and a nurse, who carried the young princes, Daniel and Vasilko. Runaways did not know where to go: on all sides by enemies besieged Volon. Decided to flee to Poland to Lesco, though from him could not expect a good reception: Roman was killed in the war with him, after which the world has not yet been concluded. Fortunately, Lesco honorably received the fugitives, said: "I do not know how it happened, the devil himself embroiled us with a novel. He sent the baby Daniel in Hungary with his ambassador, . which was to convey to the king: "I forgot his quarrel with the Roman, . Roman and you had a friend: You swore to each other, . that one of you, . who remain alive, . will take care of the family of the deceased, now Romanovich expelled from everywhere: go, . will return them to their paternal ",
. Andrew initially agreed to the proposal Leshka, but later, when Prince Vladimir Galitsky sent rich gifts to both of them, their zeal for the Romanov family alienated ".
Next 1207 Lesco and his brother went to Vladimir Kondrat. Vladimirec, thinking that the Poles are going to help Daniel, have opened their gates. But they robbed the city, Svyatoslav Igorevich chased, and in its place put Alexander Vsevolodovicha Belzskogo. Vasilyek Lesco gave Belsen.
Andrew was not opposed I., but own nobles continued to deliver them a lot of concern for its sedition. Seizing the moment, I. ordered to kill the entire squad Galicia: 500 people died from it, but others fled. Three of the boyars - Vladislav (which mostly were obliged I. Galicia district), and Philip Sudislav - went to Hungary. They began to ask King Andrew: "Give us our otchicha Daniel, we'll go with him and shall take away from Galich Igorevich". King agreed, sent the boyars and expelled them from young Daniel in Galich, giving him a strong army. Vladislav went primarily to Przemysl. The townspeople immediately grabbed her prince Svyatoslav Igorevich and surrendered the city on the name of Daniel. From there, the boyars with the Hungarians went to Zvenigorod. Zvenigorodtsy slugger at first, but then, when the prince of Roman taken prisoner, too, opened the gates. From Zvenigorod Daniel with the Allies went to Galich. Vladimir I., without waiting for the arrival of the enemy fled, and Daniel freely entered Galich, where all the boyars, Vladimir and Galich, put him on his father's desk in the cathedral church of. Virgin.
But the boyars were not enough of his triumph. They yearned for vengeance: in the hands of the Hungarians were captured I.; governor would lead them to the king, but the boyars Galicia, Zadar governor, having obtained a Igorevich and hanged them. It is easy to understand that these nobles did not put Daniel in order, so hard to obey the child. Over the last wishes was to manage his mother, who arrived in Galich, immediately after she learned about the success of his son, but the nobles immediately threw her. Little Daniel did not want to part with his mother, . crying, . and when one of the boyars wanted to forcibly take him a horse, . drew his sword, . to hit him, . but missed and wounded the only horse, his mother rushed to wrest it from his hands the sword, . persuaded to calm down and stay in Galicia, . and she went to Belsen again to Vasilyek, . and then - to the King of Hungary,
. Andrew took her side, called the Vladimir boyars, Prince Ingvar of Lutsk, and went to Galich, where the exiled princess all the nobleman Vlad ruled with two companions - Sudislavom and Philip. The king ordered to seize all three of them and expose grave conclusion; Sudislav had the money to pay off from captivity, . But Vlad was forced to follow the King of Hungary, . where, . however, . spent a short time: two of his brothers, . Yavold and Yaropolk, . managed to escape in Peresopnitsu and persuaded GdaеLsk Prince Mstislav dumb to go with them again on Galich,
. Boyars, learning about the introduction of Mstislav in their land, moved to his side, and Daniel with his mother again were forced to flee to Hungary. Vasilko during these events lost Belsen and stayed with one Kamianets
. While the brothers were busy Vladislavovo so successfully in Peresopnitse and Galich, . Vladislav himself acted in Hungary with King Andrew: as seen from the following chronicle story, . He persuaded Andrew Galic did not give any of the Russian princes, . and take it yourself, . moreover promised to cook everything in Galicia to the new order,
. Otherwise it will be difficult to explain the news that the king, intending to go to Galich, sent there by Vladislav. Vladislav rode triumphantly into Galich after fleeing there Mstislav Peresopnytsia, voknyazhilsya and sat on the table, in the words of the chronicler, recognizing, however, as can be seen, the supreme authority of the Hungarian King. Meanwhile, Daniel moved from Hungary to Poland and not getting anything except an honorary reception, went to his brother in Kamenetz Vasilyek. At this time it began Mstislav Dumb Peresopnytsia: Leszek he raised in the campaign against the Galich, and the ladies with an army recruited from the Hungarians and the Czechs went out to meet the enemy on the river Bobrok. The Allies managed to beat Vladislav, . but failed to take Galich, they were satisfied with the devastation of parish and go back, . then Lesco told Alexander, . Prince of Vladimir, . give Romanovich two cities - Tihoml and Peremysl: here, . says the chronicler, . Daniel began to reign and Vasilko mother, . and Vladimir looked at, . saying: "Sooner or later, Vladimir will be our",
. Meanwhile, King Andrew, . freed several of their internal affairs, . made the hike to Leszek, . revenge for the devastation Galician parish, . which he regarded as his own; Lesco not want war with the king and sent him governor of its proposal the following transaction: "Not good boyar rule in Galicia, . but better to take my daughter for his son Koloman, and put him there ",
. Andrew agreed, had a private meeting with Lesco, a wedding settled, and the young Koloman began to reign in Galicia, a nobleman Vlad was captured and died in captivity. Also advantageous marriage for his daughter Lesco received from the King of the Galician city of Przemysl and parish Ljubic. Instead Pryemysl Daniel went to Vladimir Volyn, where Lesco drove Alexander Vsevolodovicha. But soon the two men quarreled Andrew and Lesco. The king had taken from Leszek Przemysl and Liubech, who, unable himself to avenge his shame and capturing Galich, sent to Novgorod aa famous Mstislav Mstislavich Delete, and invited him to rule in Galicia. In 1215, Mstislav unexpectedly appeared in Galicia, Hungarians fled, and Mstislav established at Galitsky throne, gave Daniel his daughter Anna. Soon Daniel matured, and everyone saw that he went to his famous father. Using the weakness of Volhynia after the death of Roman and early childhood is time his sons, . Poles captured the border duty, . so-called Borderland, and now Daniel even think to take away from them this borderland, and, . came to the test Mstislav, . said to him: "Father! Poles kept my paternal! He answered him: "Son!" For the old love I can not climb Lesco, . Search your other allies,
. There Daniel was one constant ally throughout his life - a brother Vasilko; with him, he went to the Poles and returned Volyn Borderland. Lesco very angry over this on Romanovich, sent an army against them, but the army was divided. Despite the fact that Mstislav refused to help his brother-against Leszek, he could not escape the suspicion that the war started on his advice. Lesco joined up again with the Hungarian king, inviting him to master Galich for son. Korolevich Koloman came with strong shelves, . against which Mstislav, . dislike of the boyars, . could not fight, he resigned from the Galic, . said the young Daniel, . which is distinguished by an extraordinary bravery during the retreat from Galich: "Prince! Go to Vladimir, . I'm going to Polovtsy: noted for his sense of shame ",
Lack of Mstislav was longer than he expected. Upon arrival in Novgorod, he freed him from Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, Lipetsk scored a victory and only in 1218 reappeared in the south. After hiring Polovtsy, he went to the next year Galich. Forces commanded by Koloman voivod Phil, dating back to Russian from the greatest of contempt. But in a heavy battle he was defeated and captured. After the victory Mstislav took Galich. Between the prisoners and was lord Sudislav, when he was brought to Mstislav, he fell at the feet of the winner, he swore to be his faithful servant; Mstislav believed, was to hold him in great honor, and gave Zvenigorod in the management. In the absence of Mstislav, . when Romanovich had to fight a dangerous enemy - the Hungarians and the Poles - and there was nowhere they care, . but God, . in the words of the chronicler, . rebelled against them and their close relative, . cousin Alexander Vsevolodovich Belzsky,
. Now, when Mstislav triumphed over the Hungarians, and hastened to come to terms with Lesco Romanovich, Danilo cornflowers and decided to take revenge on Alexander, and captured all of his parish. Only the intervention of Mstislav allowed Alexander to keep parish.
But it is clear that the anger of Alexander cousins not diminished by this, and he soon had a chance to note them. Daniel is not long lived in friendship with the father. The reasons for the reluctance could not be, because their right to have faced Galich: Mstislav got Galich weapon against the heathen, but Daniel did not forget that this was a parish of his father. Hearing that Mstislav at odds with his son, Alexander Belzsky rejoiced and began to hustle to ratification against Mstislav Romanovich. Began strife. Daniel joined with the Poles, . Mstislav led Polovtsy, . raised and Vladimir Rurikovich, . Prince of Kiev, . but in this feud got more than all its main culprit Alexander Belzskomu: Mstislav acted as a sluggish, . and parish Belzskaya again was terribly devastated Romanovich,
. Acer Alexander began to burn more Mstislav at Daniel. "Your in-law wants to kill you" - he kept saying to him, but finally Udalov opened his eyes: he saw that all this was a slander on Daniel and reconciled with his son.
In 1224 in the Polovtsian steppe Tatars were the first. Father-of Mstislav Polovtsian Khan Kotyan persuaded the Russian princes to oppose them. We gathered three senior prince Mstislav Romanovich of Kiev, Mstislav of Chernigov and Mstislav Galitsky. Junior princes was more than a decade, and Daniel among them. Crossed the Dnieper, the Russian steppe, came eight days and met the Tatars on the river Kalka.
Mstislav told Daniel cross the river behind him and passed the rest of Galich army. June 16 deletes one started the fight, without telling its allies. Daniel went ahead and first fought with the Tatars, was wounded in the chest, but did not feel it because of his youth and in the heat of battle.
He was a very, strong, bold and brave, from head to foot there was no blemish in him, says the chronicler. Seeing Daniel is in danger, his uncle Mstislav Dumb Lutsky rushed to his rescue; already Tatars retreated to Daniel, when Polovtsians fled before the enemy to tread mills Russian princes, who, thanks to delete is not time to take up arms. This settled the matter in favor of the Tatars: Daniel, seeing that the last winning, turnover horse, galloped to the river, began to drink, and only then felt the wound. Meanwhile, Russian suffered a defeat everywhere committed what, in the words of the chronicler, had happened from the beginning of the Russian land. Mstislav Galitsky managed to cross the Dnieper, while both of his namesake lay their heads on the banks of the Kalka. Cross a river, he ordered the burning and cut the boat, pushing them from the shore, fearing Tatar chase. But the Tartars did not pursue the Russian far, came to Novgorod Svyatopolcheskogo and turned back to the steppes.
In the last years of his reign Mstislav became friendly with Hungary and married his daughter to the Hungarian Prince Andrew. Andrew initially received from the test Przemysl, and then persuaded him to put the boyars Prince in the Galicia. Mstislav fulfilled their desire and in 1226 settled in Torchesk. Before his death, he repented and sent Daniel said: "Son, I have sinned, . that does not give you Galich, . but gave it to the stranger on the advice Smoothie Sudislava - he deceived me, but God willing, . then the case can still be correct: I Polovtsy, . and you take with Galich, . I Ponizova ",
. But Mstislav have not had time to realize our plans. In 1228, he died. Boyars did not give him before his death to see Daniel. Even before the death of Mstislav in 1227 died in the strife Lesco Polish, and Daniel went to the aid of his brother Kondrat. This campaign ended world of Polish princes, brought Daniel, loud glory.
Meanwhile exploits Mstislav remove not yielded any significant benefit of South Russia. If only the future of this part of the Russian land would depend on the personality of a prince, the prince of this could only be a Daniel. Shining courage, . ambition, . hereditary in the tribe Izyaslavovom, . merged it with the ability to extensive public schemes and state diligence, with firmness, . ability to constantly strive for just the intended target, he combined the softness in the behavior, . intelligibility in the media, . what looked like his grandfather Izyaslav Mstislavovitch, . and differed sharply from his father, Roman,
. Since the story about the exploits of Daniel, . chronicler had every right to say: "Let's start talking about the countless rattsh, . great work, . frequent wars, . many sedition, . frequent rebellions, . many riots; had every right to say, . that the sons of the Romanovs izmlada had no peace,
. The death of Mstislav they were surrounded on all sides by enemies: in Galicia King's Hungarian and hostile boyars; in Pinsk, Prince Rostislav (after death he withdrew tried to capture the Czartoryski, . but Daniel took his own), in Kiev Vladimir II of Kiev, . inherit his father's hostility to Roman and his sons, the princes of Chernigov not want to forget the claims of his tribe to Galich and angry insults, . received there,
. Metropolitan Kirill tried in vain to avert strife: Rostislav Pinsky did not stop slandering Daniel and moving the other princes.
And Vladimir of Kiev gathered troops. "Father Daniel, the veil of my father," - he said, and was in his heart a great fear, adds the chronicler, which means that Vladimir was afraid that the young Daniel will go in the footsteps of his father and his ill-will of his neighbors. Vladimir planted horse Polovtsian Khan Kotyan and all Polovtsy and together with Mikhail of Chernigov Vsevolodovich besieged Kamenetz. Meanwhile, forces Romanovich increased: after the death of Yaroslav Ingvar Lutsk principality that passed under the control of Daniel, who gave Lutsk and Brest Peresopnitsu his brother Vasilyek and Przemysl and Mezhibozhe - Yaroslav Ingvarevichu. But the enemies were many. In the ratification of the besiegers were kuryane, pinyane, northerners and Turovtsev. Daniel saw that he can not resist such an army, especially since in Galicia and the King's chief advisor of his, my lord Sudislav were in alliance with the Prince of Kiev. He began peace negotiations to buy time and divide the allies, and that he succeeded on the Polovtsian Khan Kotyan. "Father!" - Sent a message to Daniel polovchinu. - Upset this war, take me to love myself ". Kotyan separated from allies, ravaged Galicia and went back to her steppes other allies, it has had time to take Kamenetz, also retreated to their ownership. Meanwhile, Daniel pospeschil in Poland for help, got it and he went to Kiev. But on the way he was met by ambassadors from Kiev and Chernigov princes, and Daniel made peace. The following 1229 success of Daniel was waiting in Galicia: when he was in Ugrovske loyal to him Galicians sent to tell him: "Go quickly to us: Sudislav went to Ponizova, but the King is left alone in Galicia". Daniel immediately with a small entourage went to Galich, and his tysyatskogo Damian sent to Sudislava. On the third day in the night Daniel came to Galich, which had already shut Sudislav escaping Damian. Daniel stood against the city on the other bank of the Dniester. Galicians and Hungarians traveled and fought on the ice, but by evening the ice melted, and hostile to Daniel Boyar Semyunko lit bridge. At this time appeared to Daniel Damian Halych with many nobles, took the side of son Romanova. So Daniel got quite a large army. Daniel was very happy that, regretted that the bridge is lit and you can not move Dniester. But when he came. he look at the place, he saw that the end of the bridge went out and crossing is possible. The joy was great, and the next day all the troops crossed the Dniester and surrounded on four sides Galich. The defenders could not hold on and handed over the city, where the King was taken prisoner Daniel, but was released to his father to Andrew for his old friendship with Danilo. Of the Galician boyars with the king's son went to only one Sudislav, . in which people threw stones, . shouting: "Get out of town, . Zemsky rebel! "But Sudislav hastened to take revenge on the people of the new rebellion: Arriving in Hungary, . he never ceased to repeat to the King and the Prince: "Go to the Galich, . Take the Russian land and if we do not go, . they strengthened against you ",
. Andrew listened, gathered a large army and declared the campaign. "Do not stay in Galicia a stone, - he said - no one will save him from my hand". Daniel left to protect the city tysyatskogo Damian. This voivod not afraid of the arrogant king and the call did not surrender the fortress, Andrew was impossible to remain any longer under the Galich, because the troops opened his terrible disease: the skin get off the Hungarians from the feet, like shoes. The king raised the siege; Galicians attacked the left, and many killed and captured, more dead on the road from the disease.
Daniel got rid of foreign enemies. But the Galician nobles, accustomed to sedition, are the benefits of their disorder, the ability to go from one prince to another, could not accept the establishment of order and approval of the Romanov's son at his father's throne. They began to come to terms with the old enemy, Alexander Romanovich Belzskim, offering to kill Daniel and take him to the princes. And one of the boyars, Philip, began to call to him at the feast of Daniel. Daniel went, but the way he was overtaken by the Ambassador of tysyatskogo Damian. "Feast started bad - said to him, Ambassador - Philip Alexander Belzskim conspired to kill you". Daniel returned to Galich and sent to tell his brother Vasilyek in Vladimir, that went to Alexander. Vasilko drove Alexander in Przemysl, took the Belsen concentration camp and captured 28 of the boyars who participated in the conspiracy. But Daniel did not want to act like his father, and forgave seditious. Generosity, however, did not help, but only more intensified rage boyars: one of those godless, in the words of the chronicler, drowned at the feast of the prince a person with wine; Daniel tolerated it and it is an insult. But he did not want to leave without punishment Belzskogo Alexander, who sat in Przemysl with Halych accomplice. Of all the guards in Daniel left only 18 young men, which could be relied. He summoned them to the Chamber together with Damyanom tysyatskim and asked: "Would I be correct and go with me to my enemies?" And they answered: "It is true we have God and you, my lord, go with God's help". Old Uncle Daniel, Miroslav, led to his aid several other young men, and with a small retinue Daniel spoke to Przemysl. By the way, however, acceded to and misconceptions boyars, showing only a semblance of loyalty. Alexander learned of the approach of Daniel, threw all their belongings and fled to Hungary, where, together with Sudislavom again began to raise the king to Daniel.
King obeyed, and his two sons made to Yaroslavl (Galich), where locked voivod Danilov, Davyd Vyshatich. He struggled all day against the Hungarians, while the other passed Yaroslavl and retreated with all his army to Daniel. Picking Yaroslavl, the king went to Galich. Meanwhile Boyar Klimyata fled from Daniel to the king. This was the sign to betray all the other Galician boyars. By taking Galich in Daniel, the king laid siege to Vladimir Volynsky. Head here was Uncle Romanovich Miroslav. Frightened by the Hungarians, he concluded with Andrei world, pledging to give Belsen and Cserveny Alexander. For Daniel, it is strongly reproached the old man, but the deed was done and had to start all over again. The king again put his son in Galicia, and he united with Alexander Belzskim, Gleb Zeremeevichem and princes of the Volkhov, immediately started a war with Daniel. Rivals - the King and Daniel - had a meeting on the river Vele, but the world is not concluded. From the words of the chronicler's clear that blame for this was the pride of Daniel, too relying on his strength. The next day, Daniel crossed the river at Shumsk and gave the Hungarians a bloody battle with the governor tried to persuade Romanovich advantageous position to take advantage and stay in the high mountains, but Daniel pulled the shelves down at your enemy. Both brothers took an active part in the battle, being subjected to terrible danger, but the squad of Daniel did not meet the prince and his courage in the end fled. However, the damage suffered by the Hungarians, was so great that they did not dare to pursue the enemy, and retreated to the Galich. Daniel with luck continued the war until the end of the year. The measure of his success is that the sworn enemy of Romanovich, Alexandr Belzsky, moved from Prince on their side, sent to tell them: "Do not fit me to be anywhere else other than you, and the brothers took it with love. In the next in 1232 the King and Sudislav sent against Daniel governor Dianisha. Daniel went to Kiev, led from there to the aid of Prince Vladimir Rurik's and Seversky Prince Izyaslav Vladimirovich, as well as Polovtsy and spoke against the Hungarians, who after the indecisive battle had to turn back. Next in 1233 was happy for Daniel: his side went Gleb Zaremeevich, poslechegoDaniili Vasilko immediately went to Galich, where they were met for the most part boyars. Daniel took the whole parish, gave the city the boyars and the magistrates (as seen, this was a condition of transition of the boyars in his side) and besieged Prince of Dianishem and Sudislavom in Galicia. 9 weeks, Daniel was in the city, waiting only when the Dniester get up the ice to go on the attack. The defenders were exhausted from lack of food. In such circumstances Sudislav thought of a way to weaken the besiegers: he sent a message to Alexander Belzskomu: "I will give you Galich, only to depart from my brother". Alexander tempted the promise and stepped. But this treachery no harm to Daniel: soon the King died, and Galicians called Daniel to take his place. Sudislavu managed to escape to Hungary, but Alexander Belzsky was caught on the way to Kiev.
Daniel once again firmly established in Galicia, but he was not destined to enjoy the rest: between Monamahovichami and Olegovichy the war began, and Daniel stepped in it.
In 1233, Vladimir Ruricovich sent to call him for help against Vsevolodovicha Mikhail of Chernigov, who stood at the Kiev. Daniel went to the Dnieper and forced Michael to retire. Not content with this, Vladimir and Daniel crossed the Dnieper, were to ravage the Chernihiv district, capturing the city on the Desna, last besieged Chernihiv. But Michael was able to deceive the besiegers, and coming out of the city, divided Galician shelf. Daniel and Vladimir returned to Kiev, tired of the long war waged by the Baptism to the Ascension, and Daniel was getting ready to go home, as news came that Izyaslav Seversky Polovtsy fights with the Russian land. Vladimir begged Daniel to help him and against the pagans, and Daniel, in spite of the exhaustion of their regiments, sailed. There Zvenigorod, they met with Polovtsy: Vladimir was now to persuade Daniel to return, but he no longer wanted. "Warrior, - he said - came out again to the battle must either win or fall". Battle was fierce, Daniel drove Polovtsy, but lost his horse, and seeing that all the others fled, and himself, and Vladimir with many of his boyars was captured. Daniel ran in Galich. By a false lead, though Izyaslav with Polovtsy is Vladimir, he sent all of its shelves with his brother Vasilyok to this city. But as soon as the Galician boyars learned that the prince was left without a shelf, they mutinied, and Daniel was forced to go to Hungary. The purpose of this trip was, apparently, to convince the new king Belo IV does not interfere in the affairs of Galicia. Meanwhile Izyaslav villages in Kiev, Chernigov and Mikhail took Galich. Thus a Romanovich left again one Volyn. The following years have passed, as expected, in the continuous struggle: the enemies Romanovich launched an offensive in their parish and sent troops headed by the princes of the Volkhov to Kamenetz. But the boyars of Daniel, calling for help Torquay, routed them and took the Volkhov princes captive. Then Michael and Izyaslav fallen upon him a large army, consisting of Poles, and Russian Polovtsy. But the Polish prince, hearing of the defeat of his detachment from the Worm-nya, ran back, losing a lot of people crossing the river Boar. Polovtsi also did not come to fight with Daniel, but in order to destroy Galicia parish, which belonged to their ally, Mikhail. Then Romanovich, in turn, launched an attack on Michael, twice princes made peace, and finally gave Michael Daniel Przemysl.
In 1235 Daniel went to Livonia against the Order to help Polish Kondrat, captured Sergeant Bruno, many warriors and returned to Vladimir. Meanwhile, in 1236 in Kiev, sat on the reign of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, and after his departure in 1238 - Michael. In Galicia it. planted son of Rostislav, and Przemysl in Daniel took. Michael is now expected to easily cope with it, but were disappointed in their hopes. Upon receiving the news that Rostislav and his warriors went to the Lithuanians, Daniel appeared immediately under the walls of Galich: "People are the city! - He began to talk to citizens. - How long do you want to endure strange power of princes? "Those shouted back:" This is our God-given holder "- and set out to Daniel, as children to their father, in the words of the chronicler. Daniel went to his city and a sign of victory put his banner on the gates of German. The next morning he came news that Rostislav was returned to Galich, but after learning that the city has already taken, fled to Hungary. Then the nobles, deprived of her last hope, came to Daniel, who fell at his feet and begged mercy. Daniel answered: "dear you, just look, do not continue to do, so there was no worse". In 1239, Michael, frightened of rumors about the Tartars, fled from Kiev. Instead, there sat Rostislav Mstislavich. Daniel did not allow him to remain long on the Kiev table: Rostislav grabbed and picked up a Kiev. He himself however did not stay in it, and instructed him to defend against the Tartars tysyatskomu Demetrius. Meanwhile, Michael left without a parish, and his son Rostislav were forced to request protection from Daniel and sent to tell him: "Many times we have sinned before you, many have done you harm, but now swear that he would never be at war". Romanowicz, forgetting the evil that took me Michael, promising to give him Kiev, Rostislav gave Lutsk. But Michael, the fear of the Tatars did not dare to go to Kiev and stayed in the parish Romanovich, who gave him a lot of wheat, honey, cattle and sheep.
Fear of Michael was grounded: in December 1240 Batu took Kiev, and subjected him to a devastating defeat. From Kiev the Tartars went to Volyn, took Kamenetz, Vladimir, Galich, and many other cities, survived one Kremenets due to inaccessibility of its walls. Daniel even before the capture of Kiev Batu went to Hungary, but was badly received by King, who refused to give his daughter for his son. Daniel had left Hungary, but met on the road, crowds of people fleeing from the Tatars, was supposed to go back. Then, . hearing, . that brother, . wife and children fled to Poland, . went himself to the same, . on the road combined with the family and with him went to his son Kondrat, . Boleslav, . who gave him a Vyshgorod, . where Daniel and stayed until, . yet learned, . The Tatars withdrew from his parish,
. The fact that Daniel went to Hungary with only one son, Leo, leaving the family in Galicia, suggests that he had not fled before the Tartars, but went for courtship and an alliance with the king against the Tartars. In Galicia waited Daniel earlier trouble: when he came to the city Drogichin, then there the governor did not allow him to enter the city, other cities have been devastated. From Brest was impossible to go into the field from the stench of rotting corpses in Vladimir not a single living person Bogorodickij Cathedral and other churches were filled with corpses. Meanwhile, Mikhail of Chernigov and his son Rostislav returned from Poland, which also concealed from the Tartars. Michael went to Kiev, and his son Rostislav went reign in Chernigov. Despite the trouble, the old enmity between the princes was ready to reignite. Even more to be feared internal enemies. Boyars Galicia, according to the chronicler, named Daniel, their prince, and yet kept themselves all the land. Chief among them were at this time Dobroslav Sudich and Grigory: the first took a Bakota and all will fall, and another wanted to master the mountain side of Przemysl, and was a big rebellion in the land and the plunder from them. Fortunately, Daniel, both Boyar soon quarreled. Dobroslav not want to have a companion, so he is sent to the prince with a denunciation of Gregory and the two then came to the prince with slander each other. Daniel was particularly offended pride Dobroslava: this lord came to him in a shirt, throwing her head back, accompanied by crowds of Galicia, marching his stirrup. Romanowicz saw that both nobleman lie, both do not want to go by the will of the prince, and therefore ordered the capture of both
. But only to establish domestic tranquility, . as Romanowicz were to take up arms to repel the foreign enemies: in 1241 Rostislav Mihailovich of Chernigov, . gathering princes Volkhov and devoted himself came under Galicia Bakota, . but could not take it,
Daniel, upon hearing this, immediately attacked the Volkhov district and cruelly destroyed her. But Rostislav thought to abandon its hostile intentions: connect with Halych traitor boyars Vladislav and Ryazan exile, . Prince Konstantin Vladimirovich, . he mastered Galich, . but was soon kicked out Romanovich and saved from further prosecution only because of the news, . The Tatars came from Hungary and go to Galicia,
. (cm. Yaroslavskoye battle)
In 1246 and 1247 respectively Daniel cornflowers and utterly defeated the Lithuanians, Tatars, who after brutally robbed all down the Dnieper to Kiev. Shortly Rostislav with Hungarian and Polish regiment was the last time came in Galicia and besieged Yaroslavl. Daniel cornflowers and heard of his arrival, and prayed to God, began to collect troops. On the River San was the last battle between Monomakh and Olegovichy. Poles hit the regiment Vasilko; with them was himself Rostislav. Daniel rushed to the rescue of his brother, was hit in captivity, escaped, left the regiment, but later came back and hit on the Hungarians, who followed the Poles crushed their shelves, tore in half banner. Seeing this, Rostislav ran, and ran behind him all the Hungarians. Meanwhile Vasilko coped with the Poles and also put them to flight. Daniel, driving Hungarians and Rostislavovu squad through the dead of the wilderness, much grieved, not knowing what is going on with my brother, when he saw a banner, and the prince himself, pursuing Poles. Daniel stood in front of the city and waited for her brother, which took counsel, whether to continue the pursuit? Vasilko talked him chase more. The defeat of the enemy was complete: the set of Hungarians and Poles were beaten and taken prisoner. Was captured, and the famous traitor lord Vlad, who was executed on the same day. This victory marked the end of nearly two centuries of struggle between Monomakh and Olegovichy. The very name of Chernigov princes disappeared from this time on the pages of the chronicle. Rhode their split into many small dynasties
. Yaroslavl victory was finally adopted by Daniil Galitsky on the table: since none of the Russian princes had not bothered him as their rivalry, the Hungarians also fled their claims, were supposed to calm down and internal enemies: the boyars had more opportunities kramolnichat and saw no rivals to his son Romanov,
But how nice was for Daniel in 1249, is as follows tyazhek 1250-th. Tatars demanded pay Galich. In deep sadness both Romanovich began to think: what to do? In the open field was not possible to resist the Tatars, the cities did not have time to strengthen. Finally, Daniel decided: "I will not give my polotchiny better go myself to Batu". Daniel went on a journey, arrived in the devastated Kiev, where he sat Boyar Dmitry Eykovich, sent there by Grand Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich. In Kiev, Daniel stopped the Vydubychi monastery, called brethren, asked them to serve a public prayer that God will have mercy on him, and swam the Dnieper in deep anguish, anticipating trouble. In Pereyaslavl he had met the Tatars, whose form has had a painful impression on Daniel. According to the chronicler, barbaric rituals and superstitions gave him a deep loathing. With horror, he thought that all who come to the Khan subordinates owners were to perform these ceremonies take place around the bush, to worship the sun and the deceased ancestors khan. In the dark thoughts came to Daniel on the Volga, in Batu Horde. Fortunately, Baty did not demand from him the execution of superstitious rites, and when Daniel at the entrance to Vezha bowed to the Tartar custom, the Batu met him with the words: "Danilo, why so long? But all's well that now come. You drink it black, milk, our drink, mare mare? "" So far, no drinking, - Daniel answered - but now, when will you have, I will drink. "You already ours, Tartar, - continued Batu - drink our drink". Daniel drank, bowed to their custom, and saying that Khan should have about their affairs, asked permission to go to the khan's wife. Batu allow. The prince went, bowed to the khan's wife. Then Batu sent him wine, telling to say: "Do not you used to drink milk, drink wine". After spending twenty-five days in the Horde, Daniel reached the goal of his visit: Khan left behind him all his land. Returning to Russia, he was met by his brother and sons, and was crying about his offense, but even more glad to see it again healthy
. Daniel could have little immediate consolation useful consequence of his visit to the Khan: King Hungarian, . frightened not so much the victory of the Yaroslavl, . much favored to Daniel Baty, . immediately sent to the latter with an offer of peace and kin Union, . who had previously rejected,
. Lev Danilovich married the daughter of the royal, and Daniel gave the king of the Hungarian captives taken in Yaroslavl. In 1251 Daniel and Vasilko with Polish princes and Polovtsy went to Yatvingians. Battle was fierce, and Romanowicz barely able to defeat. Land of the enemy and was burned with poplenena, many of the princes her beaten. In 1254 Daniel, as an ally of the Hungarians participated in the campaign against the Czech Republic, besieged Troppau, but due to illness had to retreat.
In 1253 he went to campaign against the Duke Mindaugas of Lithuania and the devastated Navahradak Region. After that, Mindaugas sent to Daniel with an offer of peace and the hands of his daughter for Shvarna, son of Daniel. In 1255 the world was concluded. By its terms Roman, another son, Daniel, was in control Navahradak region with an obligation to recognize the rule over them Mindowg.
But the situation was calmer than Daniel, nicer than getting between the neighboring sovereigns of his name, the more painful it was for him the Tartar dominion. He began to seek means for the overthrow of the Tatar yoke. But that do it alone, it was impossible to think, to break the power of the Tartars, throw them on the steppe it was only possible as a result of new Crusades, with the help of the entire European Union. In the hope of a new crusade Daniel a lively relationship with his father Constantine IV, promising him the union of churches in return for military aid. But these hopes were in vain. Two letters of Pope 1253 and 1254 years of the Crusades against the Tatars unanswered. In 1255 Daniel received from the hands of the pope the title of king and was crowned in Drahichhyn. The following year he lost hope for papal assistance, interrupted him with respect. The royal title, however, remained for his descendants.
In 1255 Daniel and his son Leo went to Yatvingians, and in 1256 they struck a new defeat. Then Yatvagi asked for peace, recognized the authority of Galich and promised to pay tribute. Daniel did not want to abandon the idea of resisting the Tatars: to strengthen the city and did not allow baskaks approved in the lower reaches of the Dniester. Domestic policies of Daniel is not less surprising than its external successes. In the twenty years that followed the Tatar invasion, he managed to bring its land in a flourishing state, populated, the town was settled, gave industry. Nearest neighbor of Daniel in Transnistria was baskak Kuremsa. He could not instill much fear Galician prince, so that in 1257 Daniel has made an offensive movement against the Tartars and seized all Russian cities, from their best. In 1259 the army Kuremsy appeared at Vladimir, but was repulsed by the inhabitants of the city. Sam Kuremsa could not take Lutsk. But in 1260, instead Kuremsy was another baskak, Burundai, which is not so easy to cope. It had to settle Vasilyek, as Daniel was afraid for his life. To avert the threat of new invasions, cornflowers had to destroy the fortifications around all cities. Only one hill, through trickery Vasilko remained surrounded by walls.
Daniel did not long survive the destruction of two hopes for a successful struggle against the Tatars. He died in 1264 and was buried in the church of. Lady in the Hill.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Daniel Romanovich (? -1264) - Prince gal., Son of Prince. gal.-Volyn. Roman the Great. In 1205, Mr.. his father was killed by the Poles, and one young Daniel Romanovich declared gal.-Volyn. Prince. In 1219 Toropets. kn. Mstislav Udatny mastered Galich and intermarried with Daniel Romanovich, giving him his daughter Anna. Polish. Prince Lesco to quarrel with Daniel Romanovich, drove Mstislav of Galich and planted there hung. Prince. In 1221, Mr.. Mstislav again came to Galich and with the help of Daniel Romanovich expelled Hungarians. In 1223, Mr.. Daniel Romanovich participated in the battle of the Kama, was wounded and fled from the battlefield. Shortly peresopnits. kn. Mstislav of Kiev Dumb handed him his Peresopnits. Parish. Shortly between Daniel Romanovich and his father came feud, t. to. the latter is still sitting in Galicia, which Daniel Romanovich considered his fiefdom. Even more embroiled their cousin Daniel Romanovich, Prince belzsky. Alexander Vsevolod, who unsuccessfully tried to seize Volhynia. In 1225, Mr.. it is set against Mstislav Romanovich Daniel, who was fighting for Galich with Lesco. Shortly Mstislav reconciled with his son and was with him to fight with the Hungarians. Daniel Romanovich continued to increase its ownership in the South-West of Russia: Luck conquered, and then Czartoryski, but in 1227, Mr.. lost Przemysl; Luck. and Peresopnits. parish he gave his brother Vasilyek. After the death (1228) Mstislav against Daniel Romanovich formed a strong coalition led by cues. kn. Vladimir Ryurchkovichem, allies, bringing with them Polovtsy unsuccessfully besieged Kamenetz. Daniel Romanovich the Poles went to Kiev, and the Allies were quick to make peace with. In 1229, Mr.. devotees Daniel Romanovich Galicians invited him to reign. Daniel Romanovich approached the city, saw the door locked on and pulled Galich, who soon had them taken, and sitting in the Hungarian city of the King surrendered to the. Daniil Romanovich, remembering the old good relations with him, let him go home, but that made his father led a new army against Galic.
City bravely defended, and the King, seeing how the plague decimated his army, retreated. Boyars, conspired with belzskim kn. Alexander, decided to kill Daniel Romanovich, but the plot was uncovered. Against Alexander Daniel Romanovich Vasilko sent first, and then went himself. Alexander fled to Hungary, and again raised his opponent's king. Boyars passed Galitch Hungarians. King's son went to Daniel Romanovich and won, but lost so many soldiers that returned to Galich, while not specifically broken prince. In 1232, Mr.. Daniel Romanovich, in alliance with cues. kn. Vladimir and Polovtsy spoke out against the Hungarians, but without success. But in 1233, Mr.. his side went boyars. Soon after the King died, in Daniel Romanovich took his father's desk in Galicia. His intervention in the quarrel between the South-Russian princes led to the fact that in 1234, Mr.. Chernihiv. kn. Michael Vsevolodich took Galich. But as soon as he left for Kiev, Daniel Romanovich came to town and made an appeal to its residents. Boyars obedient to the will of the people and opened the gates. Daniel Romanovich and on this occasion they had mercy. Moreover, he granted many of these new lands. But this time he failed to gain a firm foothold in the Dniester. Soon he went out in Hungary after him were just Volhynia. Ownership. In 1238, Mr.. Daniel Romanovich finally able to reunite Gal. and Volyn. land under his rule. Vladimir-Volyn he gave his brother Vasilyek, and place of his residence did Galich. Just before the Mongol invasion Daniel Romanovich even managed to capture Kiev, where he planted his deputy tysyatskogo Dmitri, who led the defense of the city in 1240, Mr.. Kiev was captured by the Tatars, and they went in Volhynia and Galicia. Daniel Romanovich was then in Hungary. Earth was devastated by his. After returning from Central Europe Tatars began a new pogrom possessions Daniel Romanovich, who this time was outside of their lands. Returning home after the Tatars, Daniel Romanovich found the once flourishing land completely devastated. Moreover, using the absence of the prince, nobles again become samovolnichat in Galicia. Daniel Romanovich barely cope with Boyar turmoil, how did his former opponent - Rostislav Mikhailovich. Several times in 4 years (1241 - 1245) burst in the last limits Gal. land, then in alliance with the Russian. Duke, with an army of his father in law, hung. King, and the Allied Poles. In 1245, Mr.. Daniel Romanovich cornflowers and finally defeated Rostislav in Yaroslavl battle on the river. Sana'a. Since then, Daniel Romanovich individually owned Gal. kn-tion. He lived in a newly built them, Mr.. Hill, decorations which gave much time and money. Having consolidated and rebuilt their town in Galicia, he regained his former strength and power, but no matter how strong he was, he had to go to the Horde at the request of Batu, graciously accepted the Duke. Good relations with the Tatars brought Daniel Romanovich however, of great benefit: hung. King BцLla IV had agreed to marry her daughter and son Daniel Romanovich - Leo. This affiliation has led to what Daniel Romanovich took part in the war hung. with the Bohemian king for Austria. inheritance. Meanwhile, the need to subordinate the Tatars - khan baskak already in full swung in his dominions - pressed Daniil Romanovich, and he was inclined to believe to accept the offer to reunite the Orthodox and Catholic churches. Daniel Romanovich entered into negotiations for the union, which has been agreed, even part of the clergy. Nevertheless, Daniel Romanovich hesitated, knowing what threatens the subordination of the Orthodox Church Pope. Under the influence of its Western allies, he still agreed to take the royal crown and was crowned (1253/1254) in Drahichhyn. Pope immediately declared a crusade against the Tatars. When his appeal no one answered, Daniel Romanovich, retaining the title of king, stopped intercourse with the papal court and began to prepare for the resistance of its own: it has strengthened their cities, went into an alliance with the Lithuanian Prince. Mindaugas. The time was favorable: after the death of Batu in the Horde began Troubles. Viceroy Khan in this part of southern Russia was weak Kuremsa. Daniel Romanovich managed to defend against the Tartars Bakota (in Podolia) and release them occupied the city in Volyn. In 1259, Mr.. he hit Kuremsu from Lutsk. Following the appointment of South Russia enterprising governor Burundi affairs Daniel Romanovich deteriorated sharply. Tartar embroiled Daniel Romanovich of Mindaugas and even managed to have in his campaign against Lithuania participated Galician squad, despite the fact that his son Daniel Romanovich Shvarn was married to the daughter of Mindaugas. Allied with Daniel Romanovich was not: Bela has been weakened by the defeat inflicted by the Czechs in their attempts to master the new Austrian Succession. When Burunday demanded that Daniel Romanovich came to him, the latter sent in his place his son Leo, while he went to Poland. The Tatars were ordered to demolish all the fortifications erected by Daniel Romanovich in his principality. Managed to retain only the Hill. Following this, the Tatars forced Galician troops to take part in the campaign against Poland. A consequence of the campaign was an attack on Lithuania Lithuanians on Galicia and the murder of Roman Danilovich. Only a victory over them Vasilko Romanovich bent (1262) Mindowg to peace. Of all the foreign policy and military enterprises in the end of life Daniel Romanovich most failed campaign against the union Lithuanians Yatvingians.
To use material from the book.: Boguslavsky, VV Burmina VV. Russia Rurik. Illustrated historical dictionary.
Daniel Romanovich GALICKI (1201 - 1264) - Prince of Galich and Volyn. Son Galicia-Volyn prince Roman Mstielavicha. Father's death in 1205, Mr.. Daniel was proclaimed vel.galitsko Volyn-Prince, but the outbreak Boyar troubles forced him to his mother Princess Anne and her brother to go to Poland and Hungary, where they remained until 1210, Mr.. In 1211, Mr.. Daniel was elevated to reign in Galicia, but his mother-guardian was unable to get along with the boyars, and he was forced again to flee to Hungary. With the help of Polish troops in 1212, Mr.. returned to Russia and the next year settled in Vladimir-Volyn. In 1219, Mr.. began to rule independently. In 1230, Mr.. conquered Galich, but because of the opposition of the boyars again went to Hungary. In 1238, Mr.. Daniel recaptured Galich and added it to Volhynia, failing to subdue recalcitrant nobility. Successful military campaigns Daniel led admiration chronicler: "bold and hrabor, from head to foot, and it you could not blemish on it". Shortly before the invasion of Mongol-Tatars conquered Kiev and Daniel sat there the voevodu Dmytro, to-ing unsuccessfully defended the city of Batu in 1240, Mr.. Daniel was forced to plead Tatar tributary, but not given up the fight against the Tatars, seeking allies among the Christian rulers of Europe. In 1254, Mr.. received from the pope the title of king. Activities Daniel was aimed at keeping their land. He built new cities: Holm, Lviv, Danilov. By Daniel from the localities ravaged by the Tatars fled artisans, artists, merchants, finding his patronage and protection. Daniel's reign was a time of flourishing of Galicia-Volyn Rus.